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chapter_04au_1 - Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution...

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Aqueous Reactions Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry
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Aqueous Reactions Solutions: Homogeneous mixtures of two or more pure substances. The solvent is present in greatest abundance. All other substances are solutes .
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Aqueous Reactions Electrolytes Substances that dissociate into ions when dissolved in water. A nonelectrolyte may dissolve in water, but it does not dissociate into ions when it does so.
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Aqueous Reactions An ionic compound dissociates as it dissolves in water Ions separate from the solid and become hydrated or surrounded by water molecules. The ions move freely and the solution is able to conduct electricity. Ionic compounds that dissolve completely are strong electrolytes Some ionic compounds have low solubilities in water but are still strong electrolytes because what does dissolve is 100% dissociated
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Aqueous Reactions Animation showing dissociation When an ionic substance dissolves in water, the solvent pulls the individual ions from the crystal and solvates them. This process is called dissociation . Movie
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Aqueous Reactions Most solutions of molecular compounds do not dissociate and do not conduct electricity ( nonelectrolytes) The molecules of a non- electrolyte separate but stay intact. The solution is nonconducting because no ions are generated.
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Aqueous Reactions Summary on electrolytes Soluble ionic compounds tend to be electrolytes (dissociate). NaCl Molecular compounds tend to be nonelectrolytes (don’t dissociate), except for acids and bases . sugar Compds with H
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Aqueous Reactions Electrolytes and conduction: Only the charged ions conduct Since a strong electrolyte dissociates completely when dissolved in water, it conducts. Since a weak electrolyte only dissociates partially when dissolved in water, we get low conductivity. Show movie
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Aqueous Reactions Strong Electrolytes Are… Strong acids Strong bases
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Aqueous Reactions Strong Electrolytes Are… Strong acids Strong bases Soluble ionic salts: Rules for solubility
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Aqueous Reactions All sol . All hal sol(ex. Blue) All SO 4 = sol except blue and black All OH, O and sulfides: insol except 1A & black NH 4 + All NO 3- and Ac - sol. CO 3 2- and PO 4 3- insol. except Ia S I Indicate oxyanions
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Reactions Solutions may have variable concentration Solute-to-solvent ratio called the concentration . For example, the percentage concentration is the number of grams of solute per 100 g of solution (Molarity later) The relative amounts of solute and solvent are often given without specifying the actual quantities The dilute solution on the left has less solute per unit volume than the (more) concentrated solution on the right. Concentrated and dilute are
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chapter_04au_1 - Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution...

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