chapter_06au_1

chapter_06au_1 - Electronic Structure of Atoms Chapter 6...

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Unformatted text preview: Electronic Structure of Atoms Chapter 6 Electronic Structure of Atoms Electronic Structure of Atoms By the late 1800s it was clear that classical physics was incapable of describing atoms and molecules and even light. Experiments showed that electrons acted like tiny charged particles in some experiments but waves in others. The same was true for light ! The physics that describes objects with wave/particle duality is called quantum mechanics or quantum theory Electronic Structure of Atoms Particles vs. waves Classical picture: Light is a wave and electrons are particles Experiments of early 1900s Quantum mechanics : We have a continuum and light and electrons are on both continua. Electronic Structure of Atoms Waves The distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves is the wavelength ( ) . The number of waves passing a given point per unit of time is the frequency ( ) . For waves traveling at the same velocity, the longer the wavelength, the smaller the frequency. Electronic Structure of Atoms Electromagnetic Radiation All electromagnetic radiation travels at the same velocity: the speed of light ( c ), 3.00 10 8 m/s. Therefore, c = Electronic Structure of Atoms Problems with wave nature of light The wave nature of light suggests that every object should glow even at low at low temperature. Max Planck explained it by assuming that energy comes in packets called quanta . Electronic Structure of Atoms Particle properties of light Einstein used this assumption to explain the photoelectric effect. Movie Photons with : E = h where h is Plancks constant, 6.63 10 34 J-s. More e-, when more photons Higher KE when higher Electronic Structure of Atoms Particle properties of light If one knows the wavelength of light, one can calculate the energy in one photon , or packet, of that light: c = E = h Electronic Structure of Atoms Planck proposed, and Einstein confirmed, Electromagnetic radiation can be represented as either waves or particles Js 10 6.626 constant s Planck' photon of energy 34- = = = = h h E Classical : e- particles Light waves Quantum pict: e- Light Continuum Problems with particle nature of e- The existence of the atom Line spectra in atoms Diffraction of the electron Electronic Structure of Atoms Existence of the classical atom Electronic Structure of Atoms Problem of Line spectra Another mystery involved the emission spectra observed from energy emitted by atoms and molecules. Movie Electronic Structure of Atoms The atomic spectrum or emission spectrum is a series of individual lines called a line spectrum Atomic spectra are unique for each element Light emitted by excited atoms is comprised of a few narrow beams with frequencies characteristic of the element....
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chapter_06au_1 - Electronic Structure of Atoms Chapter 6...

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