Operant Conditioning-Fall 2008

Operant - OPERANT CONDITIONING LEARNING BY CONSEQUENCES What you should know Basic shaping procedures Types of reinforcement Extinction What you

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What you should know Basic “shaping” procedures Types of reinforcement Extinction Punishment Escape-avoidance Secondary reinforcement Shaping complex behaviors Applications OPERANT CONDITIONING: LEARNING BY CONSEQUENCES What you should know 09-04-08
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Thorndikes’ puzzle box 09-04-08 Psy 100 Madigan
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Or you could call this “problem solving” 09-04-08 Learning by “trial and error”
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“The Skinner Box” (operant conditioning apparatus) 09-04-08 Psy 100 Madigan
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Behavior engineering problem: get the subject to press the lever (“bar”) on the side of the cage. Initial conditions: (1) The subject has already learned that food sometimes appears in the food cup (“food magazine training”). Also, the dispenser makes a noise when food is delivered or when the bar is pressed. This creates an association between the noise and food (“association by contiguity”). (2) The subject has been food-deprived for 24 hrs. (3) The “ operant level ” (current rate) of the desired behavior (bar press) is very low or zero. (4) Begin a program of reinforcing successive approximations to the final behavior. Example : subject near food cup turns head towards cup deliver reinforcer immediately . Then require closer and closer approximations, reinforcing each one (“You’re getting warmer”). Eventually : subject puts paw on bar with sufficient force to depress lever and operate food-dispensing circuit. Done! 09-04-08 Psy 100 Madigan
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09-04-08 Psy 100 Madigan
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Extensions: Add some stimulus control : The bar press response is reinforced only if the light is on ( discriminative stimulus , S D ). The light “sets the occasion” for responding. With enough training, the subject will never respond if the light isn’t on. The animal will also learn a new behavior whose only direct consequence is that it turns the light on! How to get rid of the behavior : Extinction Just cut off reinforcement. The rate of responding will gradually decrease and approach zero. !Never reinforce unwanted behavior! STIMULUS CONTROL 09-04-08 Psy 100 Madigan
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“The Skinner Box” (operant conditioning apparatus) 09-04-08 Psy 100 Madigan
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09-04-08 Psy 100 Madigan
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To create a behavior that’s intense and durable: switch to partial reinforcement (such as FR-5: 1 reinforcement for every 5 responses). Principle
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Operant - OPERANT CONDITIONING LEARNING BY CONSEQUENCES What you should know Basic shaping procedures Types of reinforcement Extinction What you

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