Schizophrenia Fall 2008

Schizophrenia Fall 2008 - SCHIZOPHRENIA SPECTRUM DISORDERS...

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SCHIZOPHRENIA SPECTRUM DISORDERS General features Demographics Cognitive deficits Genetic influence Drug Treatments Current research
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Video: Schizophrenia
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Schizophrenia = “split mind” = separation of normal thought and feeling (not “multiple personality”!) distortion of thought, perception, emotion delusions (paranoid, grandiose) hallucinations (auditory mainly: “hearing voices”) autism, unresponsiveness (“flattened affect”) “Positive” symptoms : thought disorder, delusions, language disturbances. “Negative” symptoms : flat affect, social withdrawal. SCHIZOPHRENIA: General Features
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Incidence : ~ 1 – 2 % U.S. Adults. Similar in other countries & cultures. Onset : 14 - 30 (“dementia praecox”); but there are childhood precursors. There are also schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Sex difference : may be 2 × greater in males, occurs earlier in males, more severe symptoms, less responsive to drug treatments. SES : prevalence has negative correlation with SES. Schizophrenics “drift downward” economically. : very common among schizophrenics (50%: alcohol, marijuana, cocaine). 60% smoke cigarettes. Suicide : greatly elevated risk (10%). Schizophrenia Demographics
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"A disease of the brain that is expressed clinically as a disease of the mind and behavior." ( NEJM , Feb. 1999) Also regarded as a developmental disorder: pre- & perinatal events influencing development. CURRENT CONSENSUS ON SCHIZOPHRENIA Subtypes : disorganized, paranoid, catatonic, “simple.” Schizoaffective disorder Schizotypical personality
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“Schizophrenia appears to result from one or more inherited, biological predispositions that are activated by environmental stress.” Strong evidence for genetic component. Default evidence for environmental or “psychogenic” influences.
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SCHIZOPHRENIA AND GENETIC DISTANCE
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• schizophrenia and genetic relatedness • concordance rates among MZ, DZ twins • adoption studies • early brain abnormalities Why is the MZ concordance rate only 50%? Perhaps there are necessary environmental influences (prenatal). Or schizophrenia may actually be a collection ("family") of
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Schizophrenia Fall 2008 - SCHIZOPHRENIA SPECTRUM DISORDERS...

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