Behavior Genetics Fall 2008

Behavior Genetics Fall 2008 - BEHAVIOR GENETICS What you...

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What you should know : Genetic diversity Heritability “Genes for X” Separating H and E influence Selective breeding Twin research Adoption studies Environment and gene expression BEHAVIOR GENETICS
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"Give me a dozen healthy infants . .. and my own specified world to bring them up in, and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select . .. doctor, lawyer artist,. .. regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and the race of his ancestors“ ( Watson, 1920 ). Famous Last Words #1 "Imagine the enormous differences that would be found in the personalities of twins with identical genetic endowment if they were raised apart in two different families . .. “ (W. Mischel, social learning theorist, 1981). Famous Last Words #2 In the last 30 years there has been growing realization that differences among people are often traceable to differences in their genomes. They’re not solely (or even primarily) the result of differing experiences and environments.
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DNA RNA STRUCTURAL PROTEINS & ENZYMES These produces cell structure, connective tissue, muscle, hormones, neurotransmitters, neurons, brains, the capacity to perceive and learn, preferences, interests, personality traits, … ). Some genes control the expression of other genes. And gene expression can be influenced by environmental influences (internal and external). But: The “ central dogma ”: the arrows are strictly one-way. The experiences of an individual do not modify the genome. ( vs . Lamarck: “inheritance of acquired characteristics”). WHAT DO GENES DO?
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“… you and I are just 1.2 percent different from a chimpanzee” (text, p. 249).” BUT: 1.2% of 3 billion base pairs = 16,000,000
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Continuing gene expression is needed for learning and memory (and many other functions)
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Meiosis in sex cells: “ … exchange genetic material in a random manner…” Sexual reproduction creates variability. This is one reason why children within a family are as different as they are. GENETIC DIVERSITY: WHERE DOES IT COME FROM? “Which half of each parent’s twenty-three pairs of chromosomes goes into any one offspring is pure chance. The parent’s genetic contribution can be liked to a random lottery, like throwing dice or dealing a hand from a shuffled deck of cards”. (You got your parents’ segregated alleles , not their genomes).
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Suppose one member of each chromosome pair is selected, independently and at random for each of 23 pairs. How any possible combinations are there? Ans: 2 23 = 8,388,608. True for male and female independently, so there are: 2 23 x 2 23 possible outcomes = 7.0369E+13 (70 trillion).
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! BAD PICTURE !
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This change
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Behavior Genetics Fall 2008 - BEHAVIOR GENETICS What you...

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