Depression & affective disorders Fall 2008

Depression & affective disorders Fall 2008 -...

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AFFECTIVE DISORDERS WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW Causation: Serotonin hypothesis Drug Treatments Bipolar disorder 10/23/11
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Chronic, endogenous rather than transitory, exogenous. Major depression “persistent and severe feelings of sadness and worthlessness”; sleeplessness, agitation, loss of appetite & libido; social withdrawal. Guilt, delusions, suicidal thoughts. Bipolar disorder (“manic - depressive”) depression - normalcy - mania cycles Dysthymia (“chronic mood disorder”) Heritability: Very high for bipolar (> 70% concordance in MZs). Lower but substantial for major depression (> 40%). AFFECTIVE DISORDERS
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Affective Disorders and Suicide
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Reinforcement Decrement and Depression Model
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Serotonin : A basic neurotransmitter/neuromodulator. Generated in the brain stem --important for many basic physiological functions ( temperature, heart rate, sleep, sex, mood, aggression). Evidence of serotonin’s role in depression 1. Drugs that prolong serotonin activity in the synapse/receptors (SSRIs: “re-uptake inhibitors”) have anti-depressant effects (Prozac, others). They are relatively selective (fewer side effects). Serotonin and Depression
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New neurons can develop from stem cells in the human hippocampus (also the olfactory bulb; maybe other regions too). Stress tends to suppress hippocampal neurogenesis: Stress glucocorticoids "neurotoxic" effect Hypothesis : Depression is related to stress-induced loss of neurons or reduced neurogenesis in hippocampus. 10/23/11
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BRAIN AND SEROTONIN
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2 . Serotonin neurons : firing rate tracks activity/movement levels (don’t fire during REM sleep). Also coordinated with responding to external stimuli. Hypothesis
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This note was uploaded on 10/22/2011 for the course PSYC 100 at USC.

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Depression & affective disorders Fall 2008 -...

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