FALL 2008 Psy 100 Memory

FALL 2008 Psy 100 Memory - MEMORY What you should know...

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MEMORY What you should know E-S-R analysis Episodic-semantic distinction Declarative-non declarative distinction Immediate / Working Memory Effective encoding into LTM & memory improvement Priming effects Amnesias Forgetting False memory Ebbinghaus (1885): “From the oldest of subjects we will create the newest science.”
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ENCODING: formation of memory traces STORAGE : retention of memory traces RETRIEVAL : access to, utilization of traces Logical Analysis of a Memory System Problems in remembering might be due to problems at any of these stages. The function of memory in general : It allows us to process information that is no longer directly available in the environment.
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ARCHITECTURE OF THE HUMAN MEMORY SYSTEM p. 334 VERBAL VISUAL Sensory memory “declarative memory:” can be expressed in words. Note the social-communication function.
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LONG-TERM MEMORY SEMANTIC EPISODIC •Where is the Eiffel Tower? •What does “kiosk” mean? •Name the Seven Dwarfs. •What did you have for breakfast? •What was the last movie you saw? •What were the names of the two communicating pigeons? General knowledge •“De-contextualized” •Relatively permanent Part of personal past •Temporal information •Tied to a context • Susceptible to forgetting
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"Working memory serves to maintain temporary, active representations of information that can be rapidly recalled.” PRIMARY MEMORY - IMMEDIATE MEMORY – SHORT-TERM MEMORY – WORKING MEMORY
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Limits on our long-term visual memory
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“Raw” sensory memories decay quickly (esp. visual). True “photographic memory” is very rare or non-existent .
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Limits on attention and immediate memory Examples: “Span of apprehension” Memory span tests Immediate recall tasks
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Characteristics of Immediate Memory/Working Memory Limited capacity (“7 +/- 2 chunks”) Separate auditory, visual & spatial WMs; auditory better than visual (memory span) Performance on WM/IM tasks IS positively correlated with general intelligence IM-WM is spared by temporal lobe lesions; impaired by frontal lobe lesions How do you get information out of WM/IM and into a larger, more durable memory store? Some of the limitations imposed by WM and attention limits can be overcome by practice and by memorizing techniques.
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THE CHUNKING PRINCIPLE Chunk ” = a psychological or perceptual unit. Immediate memory is limited by the number of chunks ("7 plus or minus 2") 9 4 5 2 6 4 8 3 1 = 9 chunks (or 1 chunk if it's your soc. sec. number) qwr gkv wsf = 9 chunks (or 3 chunks if they're friends' initials) IBM FBI NBC = 3 chunks TREE DISH FLAG = 3 chunks (or 1 chunk if you do elaborative rehearsal ).
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MOST SCHEMES FOR "IMPROVING MEMORY" OPERATE AT THE ENCODING STAGE, AND ARE BASED ON: CHUNKING-ORGANIZATION ! HOW TO HAVE A MEMORY SPAN OF 70 DIGITS ! MENTAL IMAGERY
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This note was uploaded on 10/22/2011 for the course PSYC 100 at USC.

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FALL 2008 Psy 100 Memory - MEMORY What you should know...

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