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Motivation-Basics Fall 2008

Motivation-Basics Fall 2008 - MOTIVATION THE BASICS What...

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1 What You Should Know: General questions about motivation Homeostasis Drive reduction theory of reinforcement Brain regulation of hunger & feeding Weight control: evolution and genetic influences Effects of brain stimulation Brain reward structures & mechanism Hormonal influences MOTIVATION: THE BASICS
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2 What are the reasons for a behavior: precipitating external influence; internal "push" (drive); goals, incentives (“pull”). Theories of motivation attempt to explain: The energizing of behavior (why organisms are active at all). The direction of behavior (“goals”) The nature of reward/reinforcement QUESTIONS ABOUT MOTIVATION
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3 Getting genes into the next generation (Dawkins, The Selfish Gene ) Maximizing pleasure, minimizing pain (Hedonism) Maintaining homeostasis Drive reduction “Money, fame, and beautiful lovers” (Freud ) To return to an inorganic state (Freud) FUNDAMENTAL MOTIVES Some general ideas & different levels of analysis
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Classifying Mammalian Drives p. 182 REGULATORY: hunger, thirst (“Primary Drives”) SAFETY : harm avoidance, fear, anger , sleep (?) REPRODUCTIVE : sexual drive, care of young SOCIAL : friendship, acceptance, approval EDUCATIVE : play, exploration, curiosity. DRIVE or MOTIVATIONAL STATE: “… an internal condition that orients an individual toward a specific category of goals and that can change over time in a reversible way.” (p. 180) Many of these are learned behaviors A simple model for regulatory drives
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6 Drive Reduction Theory of Reinforcement Behaviors that lead to reduction in the strength of a drive are strengthened. Drive (D) serves to activate unlearned and learned behaviors (H) that in the past have led to a reduction in drive strength: D x H Example : A rat has to how learn its way through a maze to find a food reward. Food deprivation “drive stimuli” Increased activity, exploratory behavior Activation of unlearned & learned behaviors Locate and consume food – drive is reduced This rewards & reinforces the behavior leading to food .
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