Personality Fall 2008

Personality Fall 2008 - PERSONALITY What you should know:...

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PERSONALITY What you should know : Trait concept Reliability Validity Self-report method 16PF, MMPI Big Five model Projective tests
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“A person’s general style of interacting with the world, especially with other people… .” What are the basic dimensions of personality? How is personality measured? How do differences in personality orginate ? PERSONALITY Trait : “A disposition to reliably behave in a certain way under certain conditions”. Usually regarded as continuous rather than categorical .
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SOURCE/CENTRAL TRAITS AND SURFACE TRAITS
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Why does heritable variation in personality traits exist within a species? Such variation exists in many species besides humans. Example: pumpkinseed sunfish: Some are bold, some are cautious. They tend to have different kinds of habitats. Each “lifestyle” has different benefits and costs (there’s more than one way of making a living). “Bold” and “cautious” may contribute more or less equally to fitness (given the existing ecology).
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Cattell, 1950: 18,000 trait-descriptive adjectives taken from a dictionary. Then reduced to 170 basic (non-redundant) ones. Then get peer ratings (“talkative”, “patient”, “jealous”, etc.). By Factor Analysis : 170 reduced to 16 basic dimensions of personality. Examples : social --- unsociable shrewd --- naïve tense --- relaxed bold --- timid The 16 dimensions are not really independent. Created the 16 PF test, a self-report questionnaire. The 16 PF (personality factors)
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16 PF: EXAMPLES OF TEST MATERIAL If I saw two neighbors children fighting, I would: a.leave them to settle it b.uncertain c.reason with them I would rather take the gamble of a job with possibly large but uneven earnings, than one with a steady, small salary. a.agree b.uncertain c.no When something really makes me furious, I find I calm down again quite quickly. a.yes b.in between c.no
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FACTOR ANALYSIS Purpose: Reduce a large number of measured variables to a smaller number of underlying basic or latent variables ( factors ). seven surface traits but perhaps only two underlying factors
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Eysenck’s Two-Factor Model of Temperament
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MINNESOTA MULTIPHASIC PERSONALITY INVENTORY (MMPI) The MMPI was created to measure normal and abnormal dimensions of behavior. Test items : arrived at by seeing how well responses to test statements “discriminated” between normal populations and populations with psychiatric disorders. This is the same as saying that there is a non-zero correlation between how a person responds to a test item and some other behavior. Test item development : based on previous research, clinical experience, intuitions, theory (such as autonomic and stress system reactions). Example
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This note was uploaded on 10/22/2011 for the course PSYC 100 at USC.

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Personality Fall 2008 - PERSONALITY What you should know:...

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