Research Methods-FALL 2008

Research Methods-FALL 2008 - Research Methods and...

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1 Research Methods and Psychological Science WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW Be able to classify research examples: Is it an experiment, a correlational study, etc. Know what the correlation coefficient means. Understand the problems of causal inference from correlations. Be able to identify independent and dependent variables. Understand the nature of and need for randomization and random sampling , and the difference between them. Be able to see the need for different kinds of controls in an experiment.
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2 psychobabble psychobabble psychobaloney
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12 Is this for real?
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13 SCIENTIFIC METHOD: THE VERY BRIEF COURSE “Empirical science has as its purpose the discovery of true generalizations or laws of nature, these generalizations being used to explain particular happenings.” “Empirical”: Depending on experience or observation. Derived from or guided by experience. Verifiable by experience or observation. Consequences: Understanding (answering the “why” question) Prediction Control Technology
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14 Careful observation Careful measurement Independent verification Careful inference METHODOLOGICAL BEHAVIORISM
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15 “AUTHORITIES” AND “EXPERTS” Sigmund Freud (1895): All male paranoids are repressed homosexuals. Bruno Bettleheim (1960): Childhood autism is caused by “ice-box” mothers. Problem : They had little or no valid data, but still made sweeping pronouncements. Both hypotheses have been shown to false.
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16 The Chain Gang Position: "He was hobbled in his personal relationships, unable to move forward into a meaningful degree of intimacy with a woman. ... The Prone Position : "shows a need to be in touch with as much of their immediate world as they can. Unless they are able to dominate the bed-space in this way, they feel vulnerable.“ The Full-Fetal Position : "I conclude that this individual has not yet allowed herself to unfurl and expose herself to the events of her life. Such a person sleeps and lives like a tightly closed bud, not having allowed herself (or himself) to unfold. Problem : These are “diagnoses” or hypotheses or inferences – they aren’t statements of fact . More like psychobaloney? from The Hidden Language of Sleep Positions
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17 1. Internal Validity (control of biasing influences): the behavior of living beings is affected by a very large number of variables. Example: the placebo effect 2. “ Noise” : observations of behavior are affected by uncontrolled random influences. 3. External Validity (generalizing): research results may not generalize well to new settings, different people, difference species; findings may not be relevant to “real-world” settings or problems. 4. Individual Differences
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Research Methods-FALL 2008 - Research Methods and...

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