Ch05 - Myers PSYCHOLOGY(6th Ed Chapter5 Sensation...

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Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Chapter 5    Sensation James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers
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Sensation Sensation a process by which our sensory  receptors and nervous system receive  and represent stimulus energy Perception a process of organizing and interpreting  sensory information, enabling us to  recognize meaningful objects and  events
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Sensation Bottom-Up Processing analysis that begins with the sense receptors  and works up to the brain’s integration of  sensory information Top-Down Processing information processing guided by higher-level  mental processes as when we construct perceptions drawing on  our experience and expectations
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Sensation- Basic Principles Psychophysics study of the relationship between  physical characteristics of stimuli and  our psychological experience of them Light -  brightness Sound -  volume Pressure -  weight Taste -  sweetness
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Sensation- Thresholds Absolute Threshold   minimum stimulation needed to detect a  particular stimulus usually defined as the stimulus needed for  detection 50% of the time Difference Threshold minimum difference between two stimuli that  a subject can detect 50% of the time just noticeable difference (JND) increases with magnitude
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Sensation- Thresholds Signal Detection Theory predicts how and when we detect the presence  of a faint stimulus (signal) amid background  stimulation (noise) assumes that there is no single absolute  threshold detection depends partly on person’s experience expectations motivation level of fatigue
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Sensation- Thresholds When stimuli are  detectable less than  50% of the time  (below one’s  absolute threshold)  they are  “subliminal”. 0 25 50 75 100 Low Absolute threshold Medium Intensity of stimulus Percentage of correct detections Subliminal stimuli
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Sensation- Thresholds Weber’s Law -  to perceive a difference  between two stimuli, they must differ by a  constant proportion
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