Ch09 - Myers PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Chapter9 Memory...

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Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Chapter 9 Memory James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers
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Memory Memory persistence of learning over time  via the storage and retrieval of  information Flashbulb Memory a clear memory of an  emotionally significant moment  or event
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Memory Memory as Information Processing similar to a computer   write to file save to disk read from disk Encoding the processing of information into the  memory system
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Memory Storage the retention of encoded information  over time Retrieval process of getting information out of  memory
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Memory Sensory Memory the immediate, initial recording of  sensory information in the memory  system Working Memory focuses more on the processing of  briefly stored information
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Memory Short Term Memory activated memory that holds a few items  briefly look up a phone number, then quickly  dial before the information is forgotten Long Term Memory the relatively permanent and limitless  storehouse of the memory system
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A Simplified Memory Model External events Sensory memory Short-term memory Long-term memory Sensory input Attention to important or novel information Encoding Encoding Retrieving
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Encoding- Getting Information In Encoding Effortful Automatic
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Encoding Automatic Processing unconscious encoding of incidental  information space time frequency well-learned information word meanings we can learn automatic processing reading backwards
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Encoding Effortful Processing requires attention and conscious  effort Rehearsal conscious repetition of information to maintain it in consciousness  to encode it for storage
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Encoding Ebbinghaus  used nonsense syllables  TUV ZOF GEK WAV the more times practiced on Day 1, the fewer  repetitions to relearn on Day 2 Spacing Effect distributed practice yields better long term  retention than massed practice
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Encoding 20 15 10 5 0 8 16 24 32 42 53 64 Time in minutes taken to relearn list on day 2 Number of repetitions of list on day 1
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Encoding-Serial Position Effect 12 Percentage of words recalled 0 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Position of word in list 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
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What Do We Encode? Semantic Encoding encoding of meaning including meaning of words Acoustic Encoding encoding of sound especially sound of words Visual Encoding encoding of picture images
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Encoding
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Encoding Imagery mental pictures a powerful aid to effortful processing,  especially when combined with semantic  encoding Mnemonics memory aids especially those techniques that use vivid  imagery and organizational devices
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Encoding Chunking organizing items into familiar, manageable 
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This note was uploaded on 10/22/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 101 at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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Ch09 - Myers PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Chapter9 Memory...

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