Microsoft+Word+-+BIS+2C+Ans+to+Study+Questions+1+S11.doc

Microsoft+Word+-+BIS+2C+Ans+to+Study+Questions+1+S11.doc -...

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Keen & Sinha 2011 -1- BIS 2C Study Questions 1 Phylogenetics 1 . Rana catesbiana and Rana silvestris are frogs . Using only information in the name , what do we know about Mus silvestris? a) it is a frog species b) it is in the same order as frogs c) it is in the same phylum as frogs d) it is in the same class as frogs e) it shares one descriptive feature with a frog species The ending “silvestris” is the species name and is usually descriptive. Members of the genus “Mus” are mice. 2 . Suppose you were looking at a collection of plants. There are some morphological differences among them that make you wonder whether they are all the same species. There is one character where the differences are most likely to indicate that the plants belong to different species instead of indicating different responses to the local environment. This character is: a) differences in overall size b) differences in leaf shape c) differences in flower reproductive parts d) differences in stem thickness e) differences in leaf number Reproductive parts are often part of the isolating mechanisms for species and are therefore less subject to convergent evolution. You worked with this idea in lab 1. 3 . In phylogeny reconstruction, why are homoplasious traits not useful? a) because they don’t exhibit variation b) because they are too variable c) because they are independently evolved in each taxon d) because they came from a common ancestor e) because they define paraphyletic groups Homoplasious traits do not indicate shared ancestry and so using them as phylogenetic characters results in incorrect trees. They often arise due to convergent evolution where natural selection favors a particular trait because it is well-suited to a particular habitat or lifestyle.
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-2- 4. In North American deserts, plants of genus Cactus have reduced leaves and store water in enlarged stems. In African deserts, plants of genus Euphorbia conserve water in the same way. However, where members of Euphorbia occur outside of a desert, they look nothing like Cactus . How do you explain similarities between desert euphorbs and cacti? a) divergent selection on body form b) stabilizing selection on body form c) frequency-dependent selection on body form d) convergent evolution in body form e) the body forms are homologous See the explanation for question 3 if you want to hear more about this. The cladogram above represents 8 species (A to H) of monkey-pod plants. Flowers are flat ( ) or tubular ( ). Open flowers are yellow, dotted flowers are purple, and hatched flowers are red. Use this cladogram to answer questions 5-9. 5 . Flat flowers are bee-pollinated and tubular flowers are pollinated by hummingbirds. What is the ancestral flower type according to this cladogram? a)
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