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Answers to Basic  genetics Study Questions 1. Mendel's first law, the law of segregation: at any given genetic locus, each gamete randomly receives one of the two alleles carried by the parent. That is, the  two alleles at a genetic locus within an individual segregate (separate) from one another  during the process of gamete formation. Mendel figured this out when he noticed that phenotypic traits often disappeared during the F1 generation, only to reappear at predictable frequencies in the F2 generation. We now know that segregation occurs as a result of the  separation of homologous chromosomes during Meiosis I. Mendel's second law, the law  of independent assortment: each pair of alleles segregates independently of the alleles at  other genetic loci. This is most likely to be true when genetic loci occur on different  chromosomes, because chromosomes segregate independently of one another in  Metaphase I of Meiosis I. Independent assortment is less likely to occur if two genetic  loci are located close to one another on the same chromosome. Mendel came up with this  rule because he fortuitously chose phenotypic traits that were governed by genes located  on different chromosomes. 2. N = 39; 2N = 78. Chicken feather cells have 78 chromosomes.
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This note was uploaded on 10/23/2011 for the course BIS 101 taught by Professor Simonchan during the Spring '08 term at UC Davis.

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