HTML-Introduction - core Web programming HyperText Markup...

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Unformatted text preview: core Web programming HyperText Markup Language (HTML) Designing Documents for the World Wide Web © 2001-2003 Marty Hall, Larry Brown 1 Agenda • • • • • • • • • 2 Introduction to HTML Creating and publishing a Web page Validating a document Main HMTL elements Block-level HTML elements Text-level HTML element Creating hypertext links Adding images to documents Building tables HTML 1 The World Wide Web • Definitions – The World Wide Web • The set of computers on the Internet that support HTTP • Not a separate network – HTTP • The HyperText Transfer Protocol • The language used by a WWW client (e.g. Netscape, Internet Explorer) to request documents from a WWW server (i.e. the program running at Web sites like or – HTML • The HyperText Markup Language • The language used to design web pages 3 HTML HyperText Markup Language • Text Mixed with Markup Tags – Tags Enclosed in Angle Brackets (<H1>Introduction</H1>) • What Does Markup Describe? – Appearance – Layout – Content (Can’t Enforce an Exact Look) • Changes in HTML 3.2 to HTML 4.0 – – – – – 4 HTML Standardization of frames Deprecation of formatting elements (vs. style sheets) Improved cell alignment and grouping in tables Mouse and keyboard events for nearly all elements Internationalization features 2 HTML Example 5 <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN"> <HTML> <HEAD> <Title>Home Page for Lawrence M. Brown</Title> </HEAD> <BODY BGCOLOR="WHITE"> <H1 ALIGN="CENTER">Home Page for Lawrence M. Brown</H1> <HR> <IMG SRC="images/nswc.gif" WIDTH=300 HEIGHT=117 HSPACE=10 VSPACE=5 ALIGN="LEFT" ALT="NSWC Logo"> Senior Network Engineer<BR> <A HREF=""> Naval Surface Warfare Center</A><BR> 9500 MacArthur Boulevard<BR> West Bethesda, Maryland, MD 20817-5700<BR> <I>email:</I> <A HREF="mailto:[email protected]"> [email protected]</A><BR> <I>Phone:</I> (301) 277-4648<BR CLEAR="ALL"> <P> This is my personal home page. For more specific programming-related resources pages, please see: <!-- Rest of Sample Page Deleted --> </BODY> </HTML> HTML Creating and Publishing a Web Page 1. Create an HTML document 2. Place the document in a world-accessible directory (often public_html or www) on a system running an HTTP server Unix> Unix> Unix> Unix> cd chmod a+x . (Note the ".") mkdir public_html chmod a+x public_html 3. Access the web page through http://hostname/~username/filename • – • 6 HTML E.g. If the filename is omitted, a system default filename is assumed (often index.html) E.g. refers to the file index.html in hall’s public_html directory 3 Creating and Publishing a Web Page, cont. 4.Validate the Document – Check the syntax using a formal HTML validator • • – The version of HTML against which the document is validated is based on the DOCTYPE <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN"> – The WWW Consortium recently added advice that Web pages include information on the character set, even though ASCII or Latin-1 is the default. The validator at gives warnings if you omit this. You can ignore such warnings if you wish. 7 HTML HTML Document Template 8 HTML 4 Main HTML Elements 1.DOCTYPE 2.HTML 3.HEAD – TITLE element required – Optional elements: • • • • • • 9 BASE META BGSOUND SCRIPT, NOSCRIPT STYLE LINK HTML Main HTML Elements (Continued) 4.BODY Element – <BODY BGCOLOR="YELLOW"> – HTML Attributes and Attribute Values • • • • • BACKGROUND BGCOLOR TEXT LINK, VLINK, ALINK OnLoad, OnUnload, OnFocus, OnBlur 5.Elements inside BODY element – <BODY> Remaining HTML elements </BODY> 10 HTML 5 META Element • Records document information, forwards and refreshes pages – – – – 11 NAME="author" NAME="keywords" NAME="description" HTTP-EQUIV="refresh" HTML META Element, Example <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN"> <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>News Headlines</TITLE> <META HTTP-EQUIV="REFRESH" CONTENT="3600"> </HEAD> <BODY> <H1 ALIGN="CENTER">News Headlines</H1> <H2>National News</H2> Blah, blah, blah. <H2>International News</H2> Yadda, yadda, yadda. </BODY> </HTML> 12 HTML 6 Block-Level Elements • Headings – H1 ... H6 – ALIGN • Basic Text Sections – – – – – – 13 P ALIGN PRE WIDTH ADDRESS BLOCKQUOTE HTML Block-Level Elements, cont. • Lists – – – – – – – OL LI UL LI DL DT DD • Tables and Forms (Postponed) • Misc. – – – – 14 HTML HR DIV CENTER MULTICOL (Netscape only) 7 Headings • Heading Types – – – – – – <H1 ...> ... </H1> <H2 ...> ... </H2> <H3 ...> ... </H3> <H4 ...> ... </H4> <H5 ...> ... </H5> <H6 ...> ... </H6> • Attributes: ALIGN – Values: LEFT (default), RIGHT, CENTER • Nesting tags – Headings and other block-level elements can contain text-level elements, but not vice versa 15 HTML Headings, Example <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN"> <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>Document Headings</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> Samples of the six heading types: <H1>Level-1 (H1)</H1> <H2 ALIGN="CENTER">Level-2 (H2)</H2> <H3><U>Level-3 (H3)</U></H3> <H4 ALIGN="RIGHT">Level-4 (H4)</H4> <H5>Level-5 (H5)</H5> <H6>Level-6 (H6)</H6> </BODY> </HTML> 16 HTML 8 Headings, Result 17 HTML P – The Basic Paragraph • Attributes: ALIGN – LEFT (default), RIGHT, CENTER. Same as headings. – Whitespace ignored (use <BR> for line break) • Consecutive <P>’s do not yield multiple blank lines – End Tag is Optional: <BODY> <P> Paragraph 1 </P> <P> Paragraph 2 </P> <P> Paragraph 3 </P> </BODY> 18 HTML Fully-Specified <BODY> Paragraph 1 <P> Paragraph 2 <P> Paragraph 3 </BODY> Equivalent with Implied Tags 9 Preformatted Paragraphs • The PRE Element – <PRE> ... </PRE> • Attributes: WIDTH – Expected width in characters. Not widely supported. • Problem: Special Characters <PRE> if (a<b) { doThis(); } else { doThat(); } </PRE> 19 Desired Character < > & " Non-breaking space HTML Required &lt; &gt; &amp; &quot; &nbsp; HTML OL: Ordered (Numbered) Lists • OL Element – <OL> <LI>… <LI>… ... </OL> – Attributes: TYPE, START, COMPACT • List entries: LI – <LI ...> ... </LI> (End Tag Optional) – Attributes: (When inside OL) VALUE, TYPE 20 HTML A sample list: <OL> <LI>List Item One <LI>List Item Two <LI>List Item Three </OL> 10 Nested Ordered Lists 21 <OL TYPE="I"> <LI>Headings <LI>Basic Text Sections <LI>Lists <OL TYPE="A"> <LI>Ordered <OL TYPE="1"> <LI>The OL tag <OL TYPE="a"> <LI>TYPE <LI>START <LI>COMPACT </OL> <LI>The LI tag </OL> <LI>Unordered <OL TYPE="1"> <LI>The UL tag <LI>The LI tag </OL> <LI>Definition <OL TYPE="1"> <LI>The DL tag <LI>The DT tag <LI>The DD tag </OL> </OL> <LI>Miscellaneous HTML </OL> UL: Unordered (Bulleted) Lists • UL Element – <UL> <LI>… <LI>… ... </UL> • Attributes: TYPE, COMPACT – TYPE is DISC, CIRCLE, or SQUARE • List entries: LI (TYPE) – TYPE is DISC, CIRCLE, or SQUARE 22 HTML A sample list: <UL> <LI>List Item One <LI>List Item Two <LI>List Item Three </UL> 11 UL: Custom Bullets <UL TYPE="DISC"> <LI>The UL tag <UL TYPE="CIRCLE"> <LI>TYPE <UL TYPE="SQUARE"> <LI>DISC <LI>CIRCLE <LI>SQUARE </UL> <LI>COMPACT </UL> <LI>The LI tag <UL TYPE="CIRCLE"> <LI>TYPE <UL TYPE="SQUARE"> <LI>DISC <LI>CIRCLE <LI>SQUARE </UL> <LI>VALUE </UL> </UL> 23 HTML Text-Level Elements • Physical Character Styles – B, I, TT, U, SUB, SUP, SMALL, BIG, STRIKE, S, BLINK – FONT • SIZE • COLOR • FACE – BASEFONT – SIZE • Logical Character Styles – EM, STRONG, CODE, SAMP, KBD, DFN, VAR, CITE 24 HTML 12 Text-Level Elements (Continued) • Hypertext Links –A • HREF, NAME, TARGET, ... • Images – IMG • SRC (required), ALT, ALIGN, WIDTH, HEIGHT, HSPACE, VSPACE, BORDER, USEMAP, ISMAP • Misc. Text-Level Elements – – – – 25 HTML BR (Explicit line break) AREA (Client-side image maps) APPLET (Java) ... Physical Character Styles, Example ... <H1>Physical Character Styles</H1> <B>Bold</B><BR> <I>Italic</I><BR> <TT>Teletype (Monospaced)</TT><BR> <U>Underlined</U><BR> Subscripts: f<SUB>0</SUB> + f<SUB>1</SUB><BR> Superscripts: x<SUP>2</SUP> + y<SUP>2</SUP><BR> <SMALL>Smaller</SMALL><BR> <BIG>Bigger</BIG><BR> <STRIKE>Strike Through</STRIKE><BR> <B><I>Bold Italic</I></B><BR> <BIG><TT>Big Monospaced</TT></BIG><BR> <SMALL><I>Small Italic</I></SMALL><BR> <FONT COLOR="GRAY">Gray</FONT><BR> <DEL>Delete</DEL><BR> <INS>Insert</INS><BR> ... 26 HTML 13 Physical Character Styles, Result 27 HTML Logical Character Styles, Example ... <H1>Logical Character Styles</H1> <EM>Emphasized</EM><BR> <STRONG>Strongly Emphasized</STRONG><BR> <CODE>Code</CODE><BR> <SAMP>Sample Output</SAMP><BR> <KBD>Keyboard Text</KBD><BR> <DFN>Definition</DFN><BR> <VAR>Variable</VAR><BR> <CITE>Citation</CITE><BR> <EM><CODE>Emphasized Code</CODE></EM><BR> <FONT COLOR="GRAY"><CITE>Gray Citation</CITE></FONT><BR> <ACRONYM TITLE="Java Development Kit">JDK Acronym</ACRONYM> ... 28 HTML 14 Logical Character Styles, Result 29 HTML Hypertext Links • Links can contain images and other textlevel elements (i.e., <A HREF…> ... </A>) • Link to Absolute URL – Use a complete URL beginning with http:// Java is discussed in <A HREF="http://host/path/chapter2.html"> Chapter 2</A>. • Link to Relative URL – Use a filename or relative path to filename • Interpreted wrt location of current file Java is discussed in <A HREF="chapter2.html">Chapter 2</A>. 30 HTML 15 Hypertext Links (Continued) • Link to Section – Use a section name (see below) preceded by # Images are discussed in <A HREF="#Section2">Section 2</A>. • Link to Section in URL – Use absolute or relative URL, then #, then section name Images are discussed in <A HREF="chapter1.html#Section2"> Sec. 2 of Chap. 1</A>. • Naming a Section – Use <A NAME="..."> and do not include the pound sign <H2><A NAME="Section2">Images</A></H2> 31 HTML IMG: Embedding Images • Example <IMG SRC="SomeFile.gif" ALT="My Dog" WIDTH=400 HEIGHT=300> • Attributes: – – – – – – – 32 HTML SRC (required) ALT (technically required) ALIGN (see <BR CLEAR="ALL">) WIDTH, HEIGHT HSPACE, VSPACE BORDER USEMAP, ISMAP 16 Image Alignment, Example 33 <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN"> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Image Alignment</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <H1 ALIGN="CENTER">Image Alignment</H1> <TABLE BORDER=1> <TR><TH>Alignment <TH>Result <TR><TH><CODE>LEFT</CODE> <TD><IMG SRC="rude-pc.gif" ALIGN="LEFT" ALT="Rude PC" WIDTH=54 HEIGHT=77> This positions the image at the left side, with text flowing around it on the right. <TR><TH><CODE>RIGHT</CODE> <TD><IMG SRC="rude-pc.gif" ALIGN="RIGHT" ALT="Rude PC" WIDTH=54 HEIGHT=77> This positions the image at the right side, with text flowing around it on the left. ... </TABLE> </BODY> </HTML> HTML Image Alignment, Result 34 HTML 17 Tables • Template <TABLE BORDER=1> <CAPTION>Table Caption</CAPTION> <TR><TH>Heading1</TH> <TH>Heading2</TH></TR> <TR><TD>Row1 Col1 Data</TD><TD>Row1 Col2 Data</TD></TR> <TR><TD>Row2 Col1 Data</TD><TD>Row2 Col2 Data</TD></TR> <TR><TD>Row3 Col1 Data</TD><TD>Row3 Col2 Data</TD></TR> </TABLE> 35 HTML TABLE Element Attributes • ALIGN – The ALIGN attribute gives the horizontal alignment of the table as a whole – Legal values are LEFT, RIGHT, and CENTER, with LEFT being the default • BORDER – This specifies the width in pixels of the border around the table – This is in addition to the border around each cell (the CELLSPACING). – The default is zero, which also results in the visible 3D divider between cells being turned off • CELLSPACING – This gives the space in pixels between adjacent cells. Drawn as a 3D line if BORDER is nonzero, otherwise empty space in the background color is used – The default is usually about 3 36 HTML 18 TABLE Element Attributes (Continued) • CELLPADDING – CELLPADDING determines the empty space, in pixels, between the cell’s border and the table element – The default is usually about 1 • WIDTH – This specifies the width of the table, either in pixels (<TABLE WIDTH=250>) or as a percentage of the current browser window width (<TABLE WIDTH="75%">) • BGCOLOR – Specify the background color of the table TABLE (also legal for TR, TD, and TH) • BORDERCOLOR, BORDERCOLORDARK, • BORDERCOLORLIGHT – Non standard attributes supported by IE to specify the colors to user for the borders 37 HTML TABLE Element Attributes (Continued) • BACKGROUND – This nonstandard attribute supported by IE gives an image file that will be tiled as the background of the table – You might want to use style sheets instead. • RULES – HTML 4.0 attribute that specifies which inner dividing lines are drawn – All are drawn if this attribute is omitted – Legal values are NONE, ROWS, COLS, and ALL • FRAME 38 – Specifies which outer borders are drawn – All four are drawn if this attribute is omitted – Legal values are BORDER or BOX (all), VOID (none), ABOVE (top), BELOW (bottom), HSIDES (top and bottom, despite the somewhat confusing name), VSIDES (left and right), LHS (left), and RHS (right) HTML 19 Table CAPTION • Attribute – ALIGN (Values: TOP, BOTTOM) • Usage – An enclosing borderless table may give more flexibility than the built-in CAPTION. 39 HTML TR: Table Row • TR is used to define each row in the table • Each row will then contain TH and/or TD entries • ALIGN – ALIGN (legal values LEFT, RIGHT, or CENTER) is used to set the default horizontal alignment for table cells • VALIGN – VALIGN (legal values TOP, MIDDLE, or BOTTOM) is used to set the default vertical alignment for table cells • BGCOLOR – Sets the color for the table row, overriding any values set for the table as a whole via the BGCOLOR attribute of TABLE • BORDERCOLOR, BORDERCOLORDARK, • BORDERCOLORLIGHT 40 – Supported only by Internet Explorer, these specify the colors to use for the row borders HTML 20 Table Cells: TH and TD • COLSPAN – COLSPAN defines a heading or cell data entry that spans multiple columns <TABLE BORDER=1> <TR><TH COLSPAN=2>Col 1&2 Heading <TH>Col3 Heading <TR><TD>Col1 Data <TD>Col2 Data <TD>Col3 Data </TABLE> 41 HTML Table Cells: TH and TD (Continued) • ROWSPAN – ROWSPAN defines a heading or cell data entry that spans multiple rows; similar to COLSPAN • ALIGN – LEFT, RIGHT, CENTER, JUSTIFY and CHAR. – E.g., the following aligns entries on a decimal point <TD ALIGN="CHAR" CHAR="."> • VALIGN – TOP, BOTTOM, MIDDLE • WIDTH, HEIGHT – Values in pixels only (no percentages officially allowed) • NOWRAP – Use with caution • BGCOLOR, BACKGROUND – Same as for TABLE and TR 42 HTML 21 Summary • A DOCTYPE is required to validate the document • HTML document should have an enclosing HTML element, a HEAD (TITLE is required) and a BODY • Documents are composed of block-level and text-level elements – Text-level elements must be inside block-level elements, not vice versa • Hypertext links, <A HREF="…">, can be absolute or relative – A link to a named section is denoted by #section • Tables are composed of main table element, <TABLE>; rows, <TR>; table headers, <TH>; and table data, <TD> – Use BGCOLOR to give background colors to tables, rows, or cells – Use ROWSPAN or COLSPAN to join cells 43 HTML core Web programming Questions? 44 © 2001-2003 Marty Hall, Larry Brown 22 ...
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