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SPIRITUALITY-BASED SOCIAL MOVEMENTS FACING GLOBALISATION IN ASIA AND EUROPE: STATE OF KNOWLEDGE AND PROSPECT Darwis Khudori, GRIC (Group of Research on Identity and Culture), University of Le Havre, France, Theme: Social Transformation Research domain: Spirituality, Social Movements, Globalisation ABSTRACT All the forces of moral/ethical/spiritual authorities denounce the harmfulness of globalisation. However, to what extent do they do so? Are there spirituality-based social movements in Asia and Europe dealing directly with the impact of globalisation? Are there concepts, projects and programmes proposed by spirituality-based social movements in Asia and Europe that are related to the challenges imposed by globalisation? Where is the place and what is the role of spirituality-based social movements amongst the existing social movements that are dealing with globalisation in Asia and Europe? These are the root questions underlying a workshop dedicated to spirituality-based social movements facing globalisation in Asia and Europe, which was held in Nagoya, Japan, in April 2004. This paper presents some selected findings of the workshop and some ideas for its follow-up. INTRODUCTION The "negative" impact of (economic/neo-liberal) globalisation [1] is well known and has been denounced by activists of civil society, humanist intellectuals, and spiritual and religious leaders. Since the motivating force of (economic/neo-liberal) globalisation is short-term material/economic profit, it can be expected that the most credible social movements [2] against it are not based on the same interest (i.e. on a material/economic dimension), but on the spiritual/human dimension. It would be useful therefore to study how social movements based on spirituality [3] react to (economic/neo-liberal) globalisation in order to participate in building up a human(ised) [4] globalisation. Studies on social movements, spirituality and globalisation as a single subject (not as separated subjects) are still rare however. Two "negative" points mark issues around this
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matter. On the one hand, people still and often get confused between "spirituality" and "religion", and between "social movements based on spirituality" and "spiritual movements". On the other hand, all the existing studies on "spirituality-based social movements", which are still rare, show this type of social movement as "regressive", "dangerous" and "anti- social", as these movements were represented by religious fundamentalism and sectarian activism [5]. The state of knowledge on this subject is therefore still limited, fragmentary and marked by prejudice. This paper aims, on the one hand, to improve this situation by presenting the findings of the Nagoya Workshop, and, on the other hand, to propose some ideas of action- research on spirituality-based social movements in relation to the concrete problems of mankind and the environment in diverse parts of the world. SPIRITUALITY-BASED SOCIAL MOVEMENTS: NOTION, ROLE, STRENGTH
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