Chapter 4 read notes

Chapter 4 read notes - Developmental Psychology Chapter 4...

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Developmental Psychology Chapter 4 Read Notes Infants grow at a rapid pace over the first 2 years of their lives. One-quarter of the newborn’s entire body size at birth is the head, at 2 it is 1/5, and by adulthood it is 1/8 Four major principles that govern growth: cephalocaudal principle, proximodistal principle, principle of hierarchical integration, and principle of the independence of systems Cephalocaudal principle- develop visual abilities before we master the ability to walk Proximodistal principle- means that the trunk of the body grows before the extremities of the arms and legs, ability to use various parts of the body Principle of hierarchical integration- the relatively complex skill of grasping something in the hand cannot be mastered until the developing infant learns how to control the movements of the individual fingers Nervous system- composed of the brain and the nerves that extend throughout the body Neurons have a cell body that contains a nucleus Dendrites- communicate with other cells by using this cluster of fibers (dendrites) Axon- the part of the neuron that carries messages destined for other neurons Neurotransmitters- chemical messengers Babies are actually born with many more neurons than they need Neurons that do not become interconnected with other neurons as the infant’s experience of the world increases become unnecessary. After birth, neurons continue to increase in size As they grow, the neurons also reposition themselves becoming arraged by function Subcortical levels- below the cerebral cortex, regulate fundamental activities, breathing and heart rate Cerebral cortex is responsible for higher-order processes such as thinking and reasoning Shaken baby syndrome- shaking can lead the brain to rotate within the skull, causing blood vessels to tear and destroying the intricate connections between neurons The brain’s plasticity is greatest during the first several years of life Infants who suffer brain injuries typically are less affected and recover more fully than
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This note was uploaded on 10/24/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 1402 taught by Professor Held during the Fall '11 term at Texas Tech.

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Chapter 4 read notes - Developmental Psychology Chapter 4...

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