{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

Chapter 4 read notes - Developmental Psychology Chapter 4...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Developmental Psychology Chapter 4 Read Notes Infants grow at a rapid pace over the first 2 years of their lives. One-quarter of the newborn’s entire body size at birth is the head, at 2 it is 1/5, and by adulthood it is 1/8 Four major principles that govern growth: cephalocaudal principle, proximodistal principle, principle of hierarchical integration, and principle of the independence of systems Cephalocaudal principle- develop visual abilities before we master the ability to walk Proximodistal principle- means that the trunk of the body grows before the extremities of the arms and legs, ability to use various parts of the body Principle of hierarchical integration- the relatively complex skill of grasping something in the hand cannot be mastered until the developing infant learns how to control the movements of the individual fingers Nervous system- composed of the brain and the nerves that extend throughout the body Neurons have a cell body that contains a nucleus Dendrites- communicate with other cells by using this cluster of fibers (dendrites) Axon- the part of the neuron that carries messages destined for other neurons Neurotransmitters- chemical messengers Babies are actually born with many more neurons than they need Neurons that do not become interconnected with other neurons as the infant’s experience of the world increases become unnecessary. After birth, neurons continue to increase in size As they grow, the neurons also reposition themselves becoming arraged by function Subcortical levels- below the cerebral cortex, regulate fundamental activities, breathing and heart rate Cerebral cortex is responsible for higher-order processes such as thinking and reasoning Shaken baby syndrome- shaking can lead the brain to rotate within the skull, causing blood vessels to tear and destroying the intricate connections between neurons The brain’s plasticity is greatest during the first several years of life Infants who suffer brain injuries typically are less affected and recover more fully than adults who have experienced similar types of brain injuries, high degree of plasticity
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern