Assignment on URAH - Assignment on URAH Course title: A...

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Unformatted text preview: Assignment on URAH Course title: A survey of Islamic History Topic to be Covered: Umayyad Dynasty (Muawiah, Abdul Malik, Umar, Waleed) Abbasid Dynasty (Abu jafar Al Mansur, Al-Mahdi, Harun Al Rashid, Al - Mamun) Submitted By: Fahima Momtaj B071801 24 th , B2 Submitted To: Md. Cholem Ullah (Farhad) Lecturer, Cenure (IIUC,DC) Umayyad Dynasty First great Muslim dynasty to rule the Empire of the Caliphate (ad 661750), sometimes referred to as the Arab kingdom (reflecting traditional Muslim disapproval of the secular nature of the Umayyad state). The Umayyads, headed by Ab Sufyn, were a largely merchant family of the Quraysh tribe centred at Mecca. They had initially resisted Islm, not converting until 627, but subsequently became prominent administrators under Muhammad and his immediate successors. Hierarchy of Umayyad dynasty (661 - 750) Yazid (680 - 683) Muawia 2 nd (683 - 684) Marwan (684 - 685) Muhammad Abdul Malik (605 - 705) Abdul Aziz Marwan 2 nd (744 - 750) Umar Ibn Abdul-Aziz (717 720) Waleed (705 - 715) Sulaiman (715 717) Yazid 2 nd (720 - 724) Hisham (724 - 743) Muawiyah 661 680 Ibrahim (744) Yazid 3 rd (744) Al Waleed 2 nd (743 - 744) Muawiah 3 rd Here we are going to discuss about only four of them, as Follows: Hazrat Muawiyah (661 - 680) Abdul Malik (685 - 705) Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz(717 720) Al - Waleed (705 - 715) MUAWIYA B. ABI SUFYAN (c.602-680) The founder of the Umayyad dynasty, caliph from 661-680. Muawiya was the son of Abu Sufyan, the leader of the Abd Shams clan. Most of the members of Abd Shams had rejected Muhammad's prophetic mission until Muhammad's conquest of Mecca in 630. Muawiya and his father are considered to be among those enemies who were reconciled to Islam through gifts. Muawiya then served as one of Muhammad's scribes. During the reign of Abu Bakr, Muawiya served in the armies sent against the Byzantines in Syria. The caliph Umar appointed him governor of Damascus; his kinsman Uthman subsequently enlarged his governorship to include what is today Syria and north-western Iraq. Muawiya consolidated his power over the region by building up a strong army which he used effectively to launch both land and sea attacks against the Byzantines. The murder of Uthman at the hands of discontented Egyptians and the accession of Ali to the caliphate in 656 gave Muawiya the opportunity to expand his power. Ali had his own difficulties establishing his legitimacy, and by the time he requested Muawiya to give him the oath of allegience, the Syrian population was generally of the opinion that Ali was responsible for Uthman's murder; thus, Muawiya refused to pay him allegience. The two men confronted each other with their armies at Siffin in early 657, where Muawiya called for an arbitration. The arbitration solved nothing, but it did serve to delegitimize Ali in the eyes of some of his supporters. The Syrians acknowledged Muawiya as caliph, and he was able to take control of Egypt later that year. Thus with Ali's assassination in 661, Muawiya able to take control of Egypt later that year....
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Assignment on URAH - Assignment on URAH Course title: A...

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