chapter3 - Lecture Outline Carbon, Carbon in the Sky--Are...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture Outline Carbon, Carbon in the Sky--Are You Swinging Low and High? A. Coniferous trees are the premier producers of the great northern forests. 1. They take in large amounts of carbon dioxide during photosynthesis. 2. Carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere decline during the warm months. 3. An indication that the earth may be getting warmer, earlier is the shift toward breaking dormancy earlier in the growing season. B. Carbon in its many forms permeates the entire world of life. 3.1 The Molecules of Life--From Structure to Function A. What Is An Organic Compound? 1. Only living cells can synthesize carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. 2. These molecules are organic compounds consisting of carbon and one or more additional elements, covalently bonded to one another. B. It All Starts With Carbon's Bonding Behavior 1. Oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon are the most abundant elements in living matter. 2. Much of the H and O are linked as water. 3. Carbon can share pairs of electrons with as many as four other atoms to form organic molecules of several configurations. C. Ways of Representing Organic Compounds 1. A ball-and-stick model depicts bonding of atoms; space-filling models convey a molecule's size and surfaces. 2. Larger molecules are best visualized using ribbon models, such as those generated by computer programs. 3.2 Overview of Functional Groups A. Functional groups are atoms or groups of atoms covalently bonded to a carbon backbone; they convey distinct properties, such as solubility and chemical reactivity, to the complete molecule. B. The common functional groups in biological molecules are: hydroxyl, methyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, phosphate, and sulfhydryl. 3.3 How Do Cells Build Organic Compounds? A. Four Families of Building Blocks 1. Simple sugars, fatty acids, amino acids, and nucleotides are the four major families of small building blocks. 2. Monomers can be joined to form larger polymers. B. Five Categories of Reactions 1. Enzymes are a special class of proteins that mediate five categories of reactions: a. functional-group transfer from one molecule to another, b. electron transfer--stripped from one molecule and given to another, c. rearrangement of internal bonds converts one type of organic molecule to another, d. condensation of two molecules into one, e. cleavage of one molecule into two. 2. In a condensation reaction, one molecule is stripped of its H+,...
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This note was uploaded on 10/23/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 10826265 taught by Professor Delcerro during the Spring '11 term at Thomas Jefferson School of Law.

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chapter3 - Lecture Outline Carbon, Carbon in the Sky--Are...

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