chapter48 - Lecture Outline Crepes for Breakfast, Pancake...

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Lecture Outline Crepes for Breakfast, Pancake Ice for Dessert A. At a glance, Antarctica is a barren continent of mostly ice and extremes of cold. B. But it also is home to unique wildlife and it is fragile. C. The nations of the world have finally come to some agreement on why and how it should be preserved. 48.1 The Nature of Ecosystems A. Overview of the Participants 1. Regions on the earth function as systems running on energy from the sun processed through various organisms. 2. Primary producers are autotrophs that can capture sunlight energy and incorporate it into organic compounds. 3. Consumers are heterotrophs that feed on tissues of other organisms. a. Herbivores eat plants. b. Carnivores eat animals. c. Omnivores eat a variety of organisms. d. Parasites reside in or on living hosts and extract energy from them. 4. Decomposers are also heterotrophs and include fungi and bacteria that extract energy from the remains or products of organisms. 5. Detritivores include small invertebrates that feed on partly decomposed particles of organic matter (detritus).
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6. An ecosystem is a complex of organisms interacting with one another and with the physical environment. a. Ecosystems are open systems through which energy flows and materials are cycled. b. Ecosystems require energy and nutrient input and generate energy (usually as heat) and nutrient output . B. Structure of Ecosystems 1. Trophic Levels a. Trophic ("feeding") levels are a hierarchy of energy transfers, or bluntly stated, "Who eats whom?" b. Level 1 (closest to the energy source) consists of producers; level 2 comprises herbivores; and levels 3 and above are carnivores. c. Decomposers feed on organisms from all levels. 2. Food Webs a. A simple sequence of who eats whom is called a food chain . b.
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This note was uploaded on 10/23/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 10826265 taught by Professor Delcerro during the Spring '11 term at Thomas Jefferson School of Law.

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chapter48 - Lecture Outline Crepes for Breakfast, Pancake...

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