chapter49 - Lecture Outline Does a Cactus Grow in Brooklyn?...

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Lecture Outline Does a Cactus Grow in Brooklyn? A. Unrelated species in distant regions often show striking similarities. B. The distribution of species is related to climate, topography, and species interactions. C. Biosphere Defined 1. Biosphere = earth regions where organisms live. 2. Hydrosphere = all water on or near the earth's surface. 3. Lithosphere = the earth's outer, rocky layer. 4. Atmosphere = gases, particles, and water vapor enveloping the earth. D. Global Patterns of Climate 1. Climate includes temperature, humidity, wind velocity, cloud cover, and rainfall. 2. Climate is shaped by four factors: a. variations in the amount of incoming radiation, b. the earth's daily rotation and annual revolution, c. the world distribution of continents and oceans, d. the elevation of land masses. 49.1 Air Circulation Patterns and Regional Climates A. The atmosphere exerts mediating effects. 1. Ultraviolet radiation is absorbed by ozone and oxygen in the upper atmosphere.
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2. Clouds, dust, and water vapor in the atmosphere absorb and reflect solar radiation. 3. Radiation warms the earth's surface and generates heat that drives the earth's weather systems. B. The sun differentially heats equatorial and polar regions creating the world's major temperature zones. 1. Warm equatorial air rises, cools, releases its moisture, and spreads northward and southward where it descends at 30° latitudes as very dry air (results in deserts). 2. The air is warmed again and ascends at 60° latitudes; as it moves toward the poles, regional areas receive varying amounts of rainfall that in turn influence ecosystems. C. Seasonal variations in climate result from the earth's revolution around the sun. 1. The amount of solar radiation reaching the earth's surface changes in the Northern and Southern hemispheres; this results in seasonal changes in climate. 2. In temperate regions, organisms respond most to changes in daylength and temperature; in deserts and tropical regions, they respond more to seasonal changes in rainfall. 49.2 The Ocean, Land Forms, and Regional Climates A. Ocean Currents and Their Effects 1. Ocean water covers about three-fourths of the earth's surface. 2. Latitudinal and seasonal variations in solar heating cause ocean water to warm and cool on a vast scale. a. Surface waters tend to move from the equator to the poles, warming the air above. b. Currents form because of the earth's rotation, winds, variations in temperature, and distribution of land masses.
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c. Immense circular water movements in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans influence the distribution of ecosystems. B. Regarding Rain Shadows and Monsoons 1. Topography refers to physical features of a region, such as elevation. 2. Mountains, valleys, and other features influence regional climates.
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This note was uploaded on 10/23/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 10826265 taught by Professor Delcerro during the Spring '11 term at Thomas Jefferson School of Law.

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chapter49 - Lecture Outline Does a Cactus Grow in Brooklyn?...

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