Quarter 2 study guide - By: Deepika Mukhara Study Guide 3...

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By: Deepika Mukhara Study Guide 3’ versus 5’ ends (Transcription)- *(needs more detail)* 3n- *(needs more detail)* Acetyl CoA- Acetyl-CoA is an important molecule in metabolism, used in many biochemical reactions. Its main use is to convey the carbon atoms within the acetyl group to the citric acid cycle to be oxidized for energy production active sites- the active site is part of an enzyme where substrates bind and undergo a chemical reaction. The majority of enzymes are proteins but RNA enzymes called ribozymes also exist. The active site of an enzyme is usually found in a cleft or pocket that is lined by amino acid residues (or nucleotides in ribozymes) that participate in recognition of the substrate. Algae types- Diatoms : Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta ,Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta, Cyanobacteria, Chrysophyta And, Dinoflagellata: large group of flagellate protistis. Some species are heterotrophic, but many are photosynthetic organisms containing chlorophyll . Alternation of generations- *(needs more detail)* Amoeboids- amoeboid - A single celled organisms that move or feed by means of temporary projections, called pseudopods. They are taxonomically classified in a sub-phylum called sarcodina; Alternative spelling of ameboid Angiosperms- Flowering vascular plants with seeds enclosed in the ovaries Archeobacteria- are a group of single-celled microorganisms. A single individual or species from this domain is called an archaeon (sometimes spelled "archeon"). They have no cell nucleus or any other organelles within their cells ATP synthase- ATP synthase is a general term for an enzyme that can synthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate by using a form of energy Autotrophs versus heterotrophs- Plants are the prime example of autotrophs, using photosynthesis. All other organisms must make use of food that comes from other organisms in the form of fats, carbohydrates and proteins. These organisms which feed on others are called heterotrophs. Bryophytes, examples- Bryophytes are all embryophytes ('land plants') that are non-vascular: they have tissues and enclosed reproductive systems, but they lack vascular tissue that circulates liquids. They neither have flowers nor produce seeds, reproducing via spores Examples: Moss, liverwort Bundle sheath cells- Bundle-sheath cells are photosynthetic cells arranged into tightly packed sheaths around the veins of a leaf. They form a protective covering on leaf veins, and consist of one or more cell layers, usually parenchyma. C4 plant function, unique structures - Carbon dioxide is fixed twice In mesophyll cells, carbon dioxide is fixed to form four-carbon oxaloacetate Oxaloacetate is transferred to low-oxygen bundle-sheath cells Carbon dioxide is released and fixed again in Calvin-Benson cycle which proceeds as normal CAM plant function, stomate timing- Separation of photosystem activity and Calvin-Benson cycle/carbon fixation activity by time of occurrence
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Quarter 2 study guide - By: Deepika Mukhara Study Guide 3...

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