Quarter2Eaxm - Quarter 2 Exam Study Guide 3 vs. 5 Ends...

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Quarter 2 Exam Study Guide 3’ vs. 5’ Ends Importance: o Nucleic acids can only be synthesized in a 5’ to 3’ direction b/c the polymerase used to assemble new strands can ONLY attach to the 3’- hydroxyl (-OH) group During Transcription: o Single strands of DNA and RNA are written in 5’ to 3’ direction o RNA reads the DNA strands in a 3’ 5’ direction o Sequence written 5’ 3’ During Translation: o Ribosomes read mRNA in a 5’ 3’ direction 3N General Information: o Triploid: endosperm Presence of three haploid (having a single set of unpaired chromosomes) sets of chromosomes instead of two Keeps seed alive during double fermentation Acetyl CoA General Information : o Coenzyme A attaches to a two carbon fragment from pyruvate o Transfers to oxaloacetate for the Kreb Cycle Preperatory Steps of Kreb Cycle : o Enzyme removes a carbon from each pyruvate o Coenzyme A: an enzyme helper o Becomes acetyl-CoA by combining with the two carbon fragment left after the removal Active Site General Information: o Pocket or crevice in an enzyme molecule where a specific reaction is catalyzed o Location where substrates are bound o Offer enzymes a favorable microenvironment for reactions Algae Types General Information : o Protists o Mainly multicellular o Some are unicellular Brown Algae: o Stramenopile
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o Mostly marine o Photoautotrophic o Chlorophylls a, c 1, c 2 o Ex.: Kelp Golden Algae: o Chrysophyte with silica scales o Abundant fucoxanthin (caratenoid) Green Algae: o Type of protistan biochemically, evolutionarily, and structurally most like plants o E.g.: photoautotrophs with starch grains Red Algae: o Type of photoautotrophic protistan o Multicelled and aquatic o Abundance of phycobilins mask their chlorophyll a Alteration of Generations General Information: o Life cycle of plants Sexual reproduction involves the two alternating processes of meiosis and fertilization Meiosis: o Chromosome number is reduced from the diploid to the haploid number Fertilization: o Nuclei of two gametes fuse, raising the chromosome number from haploid to diploid In animals : o Meiosis generates the haploid gametes – sperm and eggs – directly o Single cells fuse to form the zygote which develops into another diploid animal
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In plants : o Meiosis and fertilization divide the life of the organism into two distinct phases or “generations” o Gametophyte Generation: Begins with spore produced y meiosis Spore is a haploid, and all cells derived from it are also haploid This multicellular structure produces gametes, by mitosis , and sexual reproduction then produces the diploid sporophyte generation o Sporophyte Generation: Starts with zygote Cells contain diploid number of chromosomes Certain cells undergo meiosis, forming spores and starting a new gametophyte generation Amoeboids Predatory or parasitic protistan Coves by pseudopod formation and cytoplasmic streaming
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Quarter2Eaxm - Quarter 2 Exam Study Guide 3 vs. 5 Ends...

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