Event Analysis. Collapse of Ummayad and Abbasid Caliphates

Event Analysis. Collapse of Ummayad and Abbasid Caliphates...

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Why and how did the Umayyad Caliphate decline? what happened during the Umayyad Caliphate? 4 years ago Report Abuse Gerald Best Answer - Chosen by Voters The Umayyad Caliphate ended when the Abbasid family usurped power in AD 750. The Umayyads had come to power in AD 660 when Mu'awiyya took the caliphate from the Fourth and last "Rightful" Caliph `Ali in the "First Fitna" war and moved the capital to Damascus. Many Muslims did not believe that the Umayyads were the right people to lead the Muslim community (the "umma"). They argued instead that only those of Muhammad's family (or tribe) had the right to the caliphate. They therefore had a sizeable proportion of their population that resented their control from the beginning. This was not a problem at first as the early Umayyads were quite competent. When they ruled, the caliphate was reasonably stable and prosperous. They were able to expand the limits of the caliphate, including the conquest of the Iberian peninsula and to the far reaches of Persia. They also oversaw an imposition of Arabic as the administrative and religious language of the whole caliphate. However, in the 8th century, a succession of relatively weak caliphs threatened the Umayyad dynasty. Although they had claimed initially that they would select the best candidate - the most competent, strongest, most pious man irrespective of family - to be the next caliph, they always selected within the family and while they were lucky with some heirs, by the end, they proved rather unlucky. Add to that infighting within the family further weakened the dynasty. This proved increasingly unpopular with religious scholars (who disapproved of the monopolization of religious authority in one family) and the population at large who objected to the increasing pretensions of the family. The Abbasids traced their descent to an uncle of Muhammad and therefore claimed a natural right to the caliphate. At first, while there were powerful Umayyads, they had not been able to capitalize upon this. However, once the weaker Umayyads began squabbling and fighting, they were able to take advantage. They tested their support carefully in the Khurasan region of Persia and finding success, the new leader of the Hashimi clan (of which the Abbasids were part) - Abu Muslim - moved into an open revolt in AD 746. They began in Khurasan, securing control there and using its resources to build their forces and finally defeat the last Umayyad caliph, Marwan II. The first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas, became caliph in 750 and moved the capital to Baghdad.
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The rise and fall of the Abbasid dynasty? Best Answer - Chosen by Asker The Abbasids rose in the year 750 to replace the Umayyad dynasty, by uniting several groups which had grievances against the Umayyads. This included the Shia, who liked the fact that the Abbasids, unlike the Umayyads, had a direct familial tie to Mohammed, many religious figures who thought the Umayyad dynasty had become corrupt and impious, and non-Arabs who resented the domination of major offices in the Caliphate by Arabs.
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