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Renaissance Art - 1 Realism 2 Perspective 3 Geometrical...

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Unformatted text preview: 1. Realism 2. Perspective 3. Geometrical arrangements of figures 4. Use of contemporary people, scenes, 5. 6. 7. 8. and clothing, regardless of theme Increased use of classical themes Use of light and shadowing Blending of background images together with the sky and making it all hazy Artists able to live from commissions 1. Realism & Expression 1 . Expulsion from the Garden the (Masaccio)1427 First nudes since classical times. 2. Perspective 2 . Perspective The Trinity Perspective! Perspective! Perspective! Perspective! Perspective! Perspective! Masaccio 1427 Perspective! First use First of linear perspective! perspective! What you are, I What once was; what I am, you will become. will vertical The Last Supper ­ da Vinci, 1498 horizontal Perspective! 3.. Geometrical Arrangement of Figures 3 The Dreyfus The Madonna with the Pomegranate Pomegranate Leonardo da Leonardo Vinci Vinci 1469 The figure as The architecture! architecture! 4. Empasis on Individualism 4 . Empasis on Individualism Batista Sforza & Federico de Montefeltre: The Duke Batista & Dutchess of Urbino Dutchess Piero della Francesca, 1465-1466. Isabella d’Este – da Vinci, 1499 I sabella d’Este – 1474-1539 “First Lady of the Italian Renaissance.” Great patroness of the arts in Mantua. Known during her time as “First Lady of the World!” 5. Classicism 5 . Classicism Greco-Roman influence. Secularism. Humanism. Individualism free standing figures. Symmetry/Balance The “Classical Pose” The “Classical Medici “Venus” (1c) Botticelli- The Birth of Venus 6. Light & Shadowing/Softening 6 . Light & Shadowing/Softening Edges Sfumato Chiaroscuro Virgin of the Rocks Da Vinci 7. Artists as 7 . Artists as Personalities/Celebrities Lives of the Most Lives Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Sculptors, Architects Giorgio Vasari 1550 Giotto G iotto Near Florence 1266­1337 Father of Renaissance Style Giotto. Homage of a Simple Man. 1295-1300. Fresco. St. Francis, Upper Church, Assisi, Italy Giotto. Preaching before Pope Honorius III. Detail. 12951300. Fresco. St. Francis, Upper Church, Assisi, Italy Brings a tactile value to painting Giotto. The Expulsion of the Demons from Arezzo. 1295-1300. Fresco. St. Francis, Upper Church, Assisi, Italy. Giotto- The Mourning of Christ Brings emotion to art A Contest to Decorate the Cathedral: A Contest to Decorate the Cathedral: Sacrifice of Isaac Panels Brunelleschi Brunelleschi's was somewhat crowded without a strong unifying positioning of the figures Ghiberti Ghiberti's figures are arranged to give emphasis to the sacrifice North Doors of the Baptistry, Florence Ghiberti The Annunciation Adoration of the Magi East Door Baptistry, Florence E ast Gates of Paradise – 1425 – 1452 Ghiberti The Winner! Filippo Brunelleschi F ilippo Brunelleschi 1377 ­ 1436 Architect Renaissance Style Begins with a R enaissance Style Begins with a Trip to Rome Filippo Brunelleschi Donatello N ave of San Lorenzo Pazzi Palace Filippo Brunelleschi F ilippo Brunelleschi Commissioned to build the cathedral dome in Florence •He studied the ancient Pantheon in Rome. •Actually measured the dimensions of ancient buildings (part time archeologist) Brunelleschi’s B runelleschi’s Dome Dome Comparisons D ome Comparisons Il Duomo (Florence) St. Peter’s (Rome) St. Paul’s (London) US capital (Washington) Cupola of St. Maria del Fiore While in Rome Brunelleschi W hile in Rome Brunelleschi discovered linear perspective D onatello (1386­1466) Liberated sculpting from the confines of architecture D onatello’s St. Mark “it would have been impossible to reject the Gospel preached by such a straightforward man as this” Donatello’s St George in a niche in Orsanmichele Baptistery, panel on the baptismal font, Siena Donatello’s David First free-form First bronze since Roman times Roman First great equestrian statue of Renaissance Equestrian Statue of Gattamelata Masaccio (1401­1428) M asaccio (1401­1428) First to use perspective in painting Realistic Portrayal of human body Realistic foreshortening Brancacci Chapel in the church Santa Maria del Carmine in Florence The Expulsion from the Garden of Eden The Distribution of Alms and the Death of Ananias The Tribute Money The Holy Trinity T he Holy Trinity (1428) ­ Fresco, Santa Maria Novella, Florence » first use of systematic linear perspective F ra Angelico 1400­1455 The Annunciation F ra Filippo Lippi 1406­1469 The Barbadori Alterpiece 1437 P aolo Uccello (1397­1475) Sandro Botticelli S andro Botticelli 1445­1510 Adoration of the Magi A doration of the Magi Sponsored by Medicis Cosmo at Mary’s Feet Lorenzo holding sword Peiro kneeling at lower level Birth of Venus – Botticelli, B irth of Venus 1485 •Influenced by Neo­Platonist? •Allegorical, represents ideal beauty not specifics, •Dreamlike, emphasis on spiritual not material The Birth of Venus T he Birth of Venus Or Attention to the sensual nature of the human form Long elegant lines glorifying the human body 2002 Euro Coin Botticelli’s Venus Motif. Botticelli’s 10¢ Italian Euro coin. Primavera – Botticelli, 1482 P rimavera Depicted classical gods as almost Depicted naked and life-size. naked Leonardo da Vinci (14521519) Vitruvian Man Vitruvian 1492 1492 The L’uomo universale The Renaissance “Man” T he Renaissance “Man” Broad knowledge about many things in different fields. Deep knowledge/skill in one area. Able to link information from different areas/disciplines and create new knowledge. The Greek ideal of the “well-rounded man” was at the heart of Renaissance education. 1.. Self­Portrait ­­ da Vinci, 1 1512 Artist Sculptor Architect Scientist Engineer Inventor 1452 1452 Leonardo da Vinci. Adoration of the Magi. L eonardo da Vinci. 1481­1482. Oil on wood. •Unfinished •Strong reliance on math himself in experimenting with details: to see h imself in experimenting with details: to see beyond his subject a boundless perspective of human, animal, plant, and architectural forms, of rocks and mountains, streams and clouds and trees, in a mystic chiaroscuro light: to be absorbed in the philosophy of the picture rather than in its technical accomplishment: to leave to others the lesser task of coloring the figures so drawn and placed for revealing significance: to turn in despair, after long labor of mind and body, from the imperfection with which the hand and the materials had embodied the dream: this was to be Leonardo’s character and fate, Leonardo, the L eonardo, the Artist The Virgin of The the Rocks Leonardo da Vinci 1483-1486 Refractory R efractory Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie Milan The Last Supper ­ da Vinci, 1498 T he Last Supper & Geometry Deterioration Detail of Detail Jesus Jesus The Last The Supper Supper Leonardo da Leonardo Vinci Vinci 1498 Technique to Technique preserve not used until after WWII after A Da Vinci “Code”: A Da Vinci “Code”: St. John or Mary Magdalene? Virgin and V irgin and Child with St. Anne by Leonardo da Vin Leonardo vs Michelangelo L eonardo vs Michelangelo •Florentine gov proposed both should paint a mural for Palazza Vecchio •Both finished sketches but never completed paintings Battle of the Standard •Leonardo upset with finances/technical problems •Michelangelo offered commission from Pope Mona Lisa 1503-6 Madonna Elisabetta; third wife of Francesco del Giocondo? Leonardo, the Artist: L eonardo, the Artist: From his Notebooks of over 5000 pages (1508­ 1519) Leonardo, the Sculptor L eonardo, the Sculptor An An Equestrian Statue Statue 1516-1518 Leonardo, the Architect: L eonardo, the Architect: Pages from his Notebook Study of a Study central church. central 1488 Leonardo, the Architect: L eonardo, the Architect: Pages from his Notebook Plan of the city of Imola, 1502. Leonardo, the Scientist L eonardo, the Scientist (Biology): Pages from his Notebook An example of An the humanist desire to unlock the secrets of nature. nature. Wrote in a right to left style that could be read in a mirror Leonardo, the Scientist L eonardo, the Scientist (Anatomy): Pages from his Notebook Leonardo, the Inventor: L eonardo, the Inventor: Pages from his Notebook New ideas for ratchets, gears, cams, pulleys, cranks, linkages, racks and pinions • Wind power machines • Flywheels • Machine tools (which formed the basis of modern manufacturing) • Water moving equipment (refined •Undersea s •Submarine rdo, the Engineer: Pages from his Notebook . Studies of water-lifting Studies devices. devices. Man Can Fly? M an Can Fly? • Most designs based on the assumption that man had sufficient muscle power to emulate birds • Used both arm and leg power is various designs for aircraft • Helical screw helicopter Armored tank (overlapping metal plates, horse or man-powered) I deas for cannonballs filled with shrapnel Rockets Breech-loading cannons Multiple fire •Numerous catapults and siege machines •Wall-scaling devices (such as rope ladders) weapons •Pontoon bridges •Offensive and defensive weapons for sea battles •Method for mining under a river to lift a siege Leonardo da Vinci…. L eonardo da Vinci…. O investigator, do not flatter investigator, yourself that you know the things nature performs for herself, but rejoice in knowing that purpose of those things designed by your own mind. designed Raphael (1483­1520) R aphael (1483­1520) Perspective! Perspective! Betrothal of the Virgin Raphael 1504 Raphael’s Canagiani Madonna, R aphael’s 1507 Raphael’s Madonnas (1) R aphael’s Sistine Madonna Cowpepper Madonna Raphael’s Madonnas (2) Madonna della Sedia Madonna Alba Madonna The School of Athens – Raphael, 1510 T he School of Athens ­11 One point perspective. All of the important Greek philosophers and thinkers are included all of the great personalities of the Seven Liberal Arts! A great variety of poses. Located in the papal apartments library. Raphael worked on this commission simultaneously as Michelangelo was doing the Sistine Chapel. No Christian themes here. The School of Athens – Raphael, 1510 T he School of Athens ­11 Da Vinci Raphael Michelangelo The School of Athens – Raphael, details Plato: looks to the heavens [or heavens the IDEAL the realm]. Aristotle: Aristotle looks to this earth [the here and now]. es verro A Hypatia Pythagoras Zoroaster Zoroaster Ptolemy Euclid The Liberation of St. Peter by T he Liberation of St. Peter Raphael, 1514 Portrait of Pope Julius II P ortrait of Pope Julius II by Raphael, 1511­1512 More concerned with More politics than with theology. theology. The “Warrior Pope.” Great patron of Great Renaissance artists, especially Raphael & Michelangelo. Michelangelo. Died in 1513 Pope Leo X with Cardinal Giulio P ope Leo X with Cardinal Giulio deMedici and Luigi De Rossi by Raphael, 1518­1519 A Medici Pope. He went through the He Vatican treasury in a year! year! His extravagances His offended even some cardinals [as well as cardinals as Martin Luther!]. Martin Started selling Started indulgences. indulgences 2.. Michelangelo Buonorrati 2 1475 – 1564 He represented He the body in three dimensions of sculpture. sculpture. David Michelangelo Buonarotti 1504 Marble 15c What a difference a century makes! 16c The Popes as Patrons of the Arts The Pieta Michelangelo Buonarroti 1499 marble La Pieta 1499 La Marble Marble Sculpture Sculpture The Sistine The Sistine Chapel Michelangelo Buonarroti 1508 ­ 1512 The Sistine Chapel’s Ceiling The Sistine Chapel’s Ceiling Michelangelo Buonarroti 1508 ­ 1512 The Sistine Chapel Details T he Sistine Chapel The The Creation of the Heavens Heavens The Sistine Chapel Details T he Sistine Chapel Creation of Man The Sistine Chapel Details T he Sistine Chapel The Fall The from Grace Grace The Sistine Chapel Details T he Sistine Chapel The Last Judgment Designed the Dome of St. Peters D esigned the Dome of St. Peters Basillica Comparing Domes C omparing Domes City­States created environment C ity­States created environment of Competition / Major centers in Italy Venice -- a republic ruled by the 200 (oligarchy) with strong Byzantine origins and culture Milan -- ruled by the Visconti and Sforza families Florence -- ruled by the Medici family Papal States -- ruled by the Pope (supported by the Borghese family) Kingdom of Naples -- ruled by the king of Aragon (Spain) Medicis of Florence M edicis of Florence were originally a family of physicians Made their money in banking – Got control of the papal money (as investors for the pope) – Became the papal tax collectors Financed the tremendously successful wool trade between Florence and Flanders Became the defacto rulers of Florence Cosimo de Medici (r. 1434­1464) C osimo de Medici (r. 1434­1464) Lorenzo L orenzo the Magnificent • Patron of arts • Accomplished poet • Sponsor/friend of Michelangelo • Invite Greek scholars to Florence • Made Florence the dominant commercial and military power in Europe 1478 - 1521 • Lorenzo's son became Pope Leo X Florence Under the Medici F lorence Under the Medici Medici Chapel Medici The Medici Palace Renaissance Florence R enaissance Florence Florentine lion: Florentine symbol of St. Mark 1252 – first gold florins minted florins The Wool Factory The by Mirabello Cavalori, 1570 Piero de Medici (r. 1492­1494) P iero de Medici (r. 1492­1494) Succeeded his father but was not strong Piero de' Medici (Child) Savonarola 1494­98 S avonarola 1494­98 Dominican friar who Dominican decried money and power. power. The “Bonfire of the The Vanities,” 1497. Vanities,” The Execution of Savonarola, 1498 T he Execution of Savonarola, 1498 • Allegory of Savonarola’s execution? Alessandro Botticelli. Calumny of A lessandro Botticelli. Apelles. c.1494­1495. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy The Medici were restored in 1531 and now the Grand Duke of Tuscany (a title awarded by the Pope) is a hereditary title of the Medici The Ideal City T he Ideal City Piero della Francesca, 1470 The Doge, Leonardo Loredon T he Doge, Leonardo Loredon Berlini, 1501 Baldassare Castiglione by B aldassare Castiglione Raphael, 1514­1515 Castiglione Castiglione represented the humanist “gentleman” as a man of refinement and self-control. self-control. Venus of Urbino – Titian, 1558 V enus of Urbino The Penitent Mary Magdalene by T he Penitent Mary Magdalene Titian, 1533 By the mid-16c, By High Renaissance art was declining. art Mannerism Mannerism became more popular. popular. This painting is a This good example of this new artistic style. style. ...
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