Unit1ChemistrySpeak - CHEMISTRY SPEAK The Language and Laws...

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- 1 - CHEMISTRY SPEAK The Language and Laws of Chemistry $ So what is chemistry, exactly? My favorite answer to that is What in the world isn t chemistry? $ Chemistry is the study of matter with respect to its composition, characteristics and the transformations it undergoes. $ Another question. What is matter? $ Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. $ Animal, vegetable or mineral; all these are matter; we humans are matter. $ So is the air we breathe and the water we drink. $ Is there anything that isn t matter? Energy; such as heat, light and electricity is not matter. $ Energy is important though; almost all of the changes that matter can undergo are accompanied by either a gain or loss of energy. Properties of Matter $ The term property describes the characteristics of a substance that can be used to distinguish it from another substance. $ Physical properties are characteristics that can be observed; colour, taste, size, physical state, boiling point and melting point are all physical properties. $ Chemical properties are characteristics which describe how a substance undergoes changes (or not!) to form a different substance; a colour change could indicate a chemical change.
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- 2 - Physical States of Matter $ Three states exist for matter: solid, liquid and gas. $ These can be classified as to whether its has a definite or indefinite shape or volume. $ A SOLID has a definite shape and a definite volume . $ A solid always has the same shape and volume, no matter where it is. $ A LIQUID has an indefinite shape , but a definite volume . $ A liquid will always takes the shape of the container that it is in, to the extent that it fills the container. $ A GAS has an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume . $ A gas always completely fills the container; taking its volume and shape. $ The observed state of matter depends on the temperature and pressure when the observation is made. $ The natural state of a particular substance is the one that we commonly observe, but almost all matter can exist in any of the three states if the conditions (temperature and pressure) are appropriate.
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CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER $ Before we can begin to study matter, it is important to realize that within all matter there are some subgroups, or classifications. MATTER PURE SUBSTANCES - 3 - MIXTURES ELEMENTS COMPOUNDS HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES $ All matter can be classified according to the above scheme. $ We will now look at each of these categories in more detail. PURE SUBSTANCES
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- 4 - $ Any given amount (often called a sample ) of a pure substance contains only that substance. $ All samples of a pure substance will have the same properties (both physical and chemical) under identical conditions (meaning things like temperature). $ Both elements and compounds are pure substances; they are made up of only one element or compound (definitions coming up!) and have a uniform composition.
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