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Unformatted text preview: Ch. 40 Physiology, Homeostasis, and Temperature Regulation Overview: Diverse forms, common challenges- All animals face similar problems- Result: Similar structure and function across diverse organisms Animal form and function:- Anatomy: study of animal structure- Physiology: study of how structure and functions *Structure/function relationships:- Function of structure related to its size, shape and composition Molecule tissue organ organ structure Structure and function: Key theme: structure is linked to function Ex. Compare appendages of vertebrates:- Large surface area- Highly vascularized- Thin integument (skin) -Organs that mediate diffusion or absorption have extensive surface area-i.e. digestion, circulation, respiration, water balance.-SA/V: surface area to volume ratio Cells: make up tissues-4 tissues in animals-cells with common structure-structure indicates function-tissues make up organs Organs: make up organ systems with specific function How organisms are organized: * Tissues: Epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous Epithelial Form:- Sheets of tightly connected cells Functions:- 1. Barrier (forms skin and lines hollow organs)- 2. Secretion (hormones, milk, mucus, enzymes, sweat)- 3. Controls filtration and transportation (absorption) Types of cells:- Simple, stratified, squamos, cuboidial, columnar (fig. 40.3) Muscle Tissue (3 Types) Form:- Long cells called muscle fibers composed of contracting subunits General Function:- Generate force and cause movement Types:- Skeletal (voluntary): striated, locomotion and body movements (breathing, shivering)- Cardiac (involuntary): striated, makes up heart has intercalated discs (heartbeat)- Smooth (involuntary): no striations, movement and force generation in internal organs (gut, blood vessels) (fig 40.4) Connective tissues: Form:- Dispersed cells in extracellular matrix that they secrete Various Functions and Types Ex. Types and functions:- Cartilage and bone structural support- Adipose tissue: stores energy, cushions organs, barrier to heat loss- Blood: transport gasses, nutrients and waste (fig 40.5) Nervous Tissue: Form:- Two cell types; neurons and glia Function:- 1. Neuron: pass into as electrical signal that travel over axons to target cell- 2. Glia: support for neurons *nervous tissue functions to control activity or organ system (fig 40.6) Tissues form organs: Organs: consist of multiple tissues Organ system: group of organs that function together Organ: stomach Stomach wall arranged in layers:- Epithelial tissue (lines inner surface)- Connective tissue (support) - Muscle (smooth) tissue (stomach contraction)- Nervous tissue (controls movement and influences secretions) Organ system: digestive system Energy source and allocation Animals harvest chemical energy from food Energy- containing molecule from fuel used to make ATP Metabolic rate: * metabolic rate- total energy expenditure of an animal per unit time Calorie- amount of heat required to raise temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degrees celcius...
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