20b - Ch. 40 Physiology, Homeostasis, and Temperature...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Ch. 40 Physiology, Homeostasis, and Temperature Regulation Overview: Diverse forms, common challenges- All animals face similar problems- Result: Similar structure and function across diverse organisms Animal form and function:- Anatomy: study of animal structure- Physiology: study of how structure and functions *Structure/function relationships:- Function of structure related to its size, shape and composition Molecule tissue organ organ structure Structure and function: Key theme: structure is linked to function Ex. Compare appendages of vertebrates:- Large surface area- Highly vascularized- Thin integument (skin) -Organs that mediate diffusion or absorption have extensive surface area-i.e. digestion, circulation, respiration, water balance.-SA/V: surface area to volume ratio Cells: make up tissues-4 tissues in animals-cells with common structure-structure indicates function-tissues make up organs Organs: make up organ systems with specific function How organisms are organized: * Tissues: Epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous Epithelial Form:- Sheets of tightly connected cells Functions:- 1. Barrier (forms skin and lines hollow organs)- 2. Secretion (hormones, milk, mucus, enzymes, sweat)- 3. Controls filtration and transportation (absorption) Types of cells:- Simple, stratified, squamos, cuboidial, columnar (fig. 40.3) Muscle Tissue (3 Types) Form:- Long cells called muscle fibers composed of contracting subunits General Function:- Generate force and cause movement Types:- Skeletal (voluntary): striated, locomotion and body movements (breathing, shivering)- Cardiac (involuntary): striated, makes up heart has intercalated discs (heartbeat)- Smooth (involuntary): no striations, movement and force generation in internal organs (gut, blood vessels) (fig 40.4) Connective tissues: Form:- Dispersed cells in extracellular matrix that they secrete Various Functions and Types Ex. Types and functions:- Cartilage and bone structural support- Adipose tissue: stores energy, cushions organs, barrier to heat loss- Blood: transport gasses, nutrients and waste (fig 40.5) Nervous Tissue: Form:- Two cell types; neurons and glia Function:- 1. Neuron: pass into as electrical signal that travel over axons to target cell- 2. Glia: support for neurons *nervous tissue functions to control activity or organ system (fig 40.6) Tissues form organs: Organs: consist of multiple tissues Organ system: group of organs that function together Organ: stomach Stomach wall arranged in layers:- Epithelial tissue (lines inner surface)- Connective tissue (support) - Muscle (smooth) tissue (stomach contraction)- Nervous tissue (controls movement and influences secretions) Organ system: digestive system Energy source and allocation Animals harvest chemical energy from food Energy- containing molecule from fuel used to make ATP Metabolic rate: * metabolic rate- total energy expenditure of an animal per unit time Calorie- amount of heat required to raise temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degrees celcius...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 10/23/2011 for the course BIO 20b taught by Professor Dunkin&parker during the Spring '08 term at UCSC.

Page1 / 68

20b - Ch. 40 Physiology, Homeostasis, and Temperature...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online