Mason2 - Water management Water, its quantity and quality,...

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Water management Water, its quantity and quality, can be a major determining factor in the success or failure of a farm. These features also have an influence on determining how the water will be used on the farm. Water is commonly used on farms for: irrigating crops drinking (human and animal use) washinglsanitation aquaculture Sources of water for farms might include direct collection of rain (into tanks), under- ground water (bores or springs), dams, lakes, creeks, river, atmosphere catching (condensa- tion on the foliage of trees that drips to the ground), recycled waste water, desalination of sea water or, in some instances, connections to town water supplies. Methods of water storage Weir (watercourse dam) In many places it is illegal to divert or stop the flow of a natural watercourse by damming; however, in such cases it may be permissible to build a weir to create a sump or to divert water into an off-stream storage dam or tank. Before doing so it is important that you contact the relevant water authority to discuss the legal aspects involved. Hillside dam The hillside dam, usually three-sided, is a cut and fill construction into the side of a prominent hillside. The embankment material is gouged from the hillside, forming a
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50 1 Sustainable Agriculture pocket-like effect. Water flows into this dam by sheet flow and diversion banks can be used to increase the amount of runoff collected. Gully dam This type of dam is created by building an earth wall across a natural drainage line between two ridges. The water is stored at a higher elevation than the surrounding grass flats, which can then be flood-irrigated by gravity. Underground pipes can be used to transport water to stock drinking troughs. Tank A tank designed to collect/store rainwater or bore water, usually made from concrete, galvanised iron or fibreglass. Excavated tank Below-ground level water catchment area usually restricted to flat ground. Rainwater collection and storage Few farms are connected to the mains water supply. Most farmers rely on rainwater collected and stored in tanks or dams, bore water pumped from underground streams or fresh water pumped from natural water courses. Rainwater is collected from roofs and chanelled into storage tanks. When choosing a tank, consider: the roof catchment area - this determines how much water can be collected the tank size - the volume of water that can be stored your water requirements - for domestic, garden and farm use To maintain water quality, ensure the tank excludes light as much as possible to prevent the growth of algae, and has effective inlet strainers and tight-fitting lids to prevent leaves, insects and other debris contaminating the water. A diverter trap or similar device can be installed to prevent-accumulated debris being washed into the tank.
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This note was uploaded on 10/24/2011 for the course POLS POLS 333 taught by Professor Evans during the Winter '11 term at Cal Poly.

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Mason2 - Water management Water, its quantity and quality,...

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