Midterm Review Sheet - Review Sheet for BSOC 3011 Midterm...

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Review Sheet for BSOC 3011 Midterm 10/13/11 General Themes –Norms –Tacit knowledge, theory-laden observation –Gender, invisible technicians, credit –Experimental practice, representation, visualization I. Robert K. Merton, “Science and the Social Order” a. “… support of science is assured only by appropriate cultural conditions … changes in institutional structure may curtail, modify, or possibly prevent the pursuit of science.” (p. 321) b. Principle of Autonomy of Science c. Requirement of a “liberal” environment (non-interference) d. Social Norms d.1. Norms: Abstract ideals that operate like rules; are enforced by rewards and indicated by disapproval for violations. Different from individual virtues. d.2. Compare to Ideology: Doctrine that serves a group’s interests Held by particular groups, political parties, classes in society, or even professions. d.3. CUDOS Commun(al)ism: open sharing and communication of intellectual property Universalism: independent of personal characteristics (e.g., race, class, reputation…) Disinterestedness: not governed by personal or financial interests Organized Skepticism: Criticism of received ideas; not accepting until tested d.4. Science as “self-policing” Error and fraud eliminated through normal testing and peer review II. Ian Mitroff, “Norms and Counter-Norms in a Select Group of the Apollo Moon Scientists” a. a.1.At issue was geological composition of moon and what the rocks indicated about the origins of moon. a.2.Moon scientists had some unresolved issues and disagreements about what would be found. a.3.Questions: Would the empirical evidence resolve the disagreements? a.4.Did the scientists behave in a way that one would expect from Merton’s norms? Disinterested etc.? Scientists dismiss ‘norms’ as fantasy, popular ideals They describe how colleagues hold on to pet theories in the face of counter-evidence They passionately engage in adversary argument (like lawyers in court) 1
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You don’t necessarily get bad science if the scientist doesn’t follow Merton’s laws When are you hanging onto your theory for too long? Norms Counternorms (Mitroff) Rationality Non-rationality as well as rationality Emotional Neutrality Emotional Commitment Universalism Particularism: trust/distrust; personal relations matter Commun(al)ism Solitariness: secrecy/privacy; keeping results to self; assuming property or territory right Disinterestedness Interestedness: personal, priority, credit, national, institutional, monetary Organized Skepticism Organized dogmatism: selective belief and skepticism: trust some information/people a.) Situations of Ambivalence- Lack of ‘hard’ rules or codes of ethics in academic/scientific organizations a.4. .1.) Commitment vs. disinterest – you don’t want to stay with an idea for too long, but then again you don’t want to give up on it too early.
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This note was uploaded on 10/23/2011 for the course B&SOC 301 at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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Midterm Review Sheet - Review Sheet for BSOC 3011 Midterm...

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