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Unformatted text preview: What if all truth is context-dependent?
Centre for Policy Modelling,
Manchester Metropolitan University,
Aytoun Building, Aytoun Street, Manchester, M1 3GH, UK.
http://www.cpm.mmu.ac.uk/~bruce Abstract. This paper argues that truth is by nature context-dependent – that no
truth can be applied regardless of context. I call this “strong contextualism”.
Some objections to this are considered and rejected, principally: that there are
universal truths given to us by physics, logic and mathematics; and that
claiming “no truths are universal” is self-defeating. Two “models” of truth are
suggested to indicate that strong contextualism is coherent. It is suggested that
some of the utility of the “universal framework” can be recovered via a more
limited “third person viewpoint”. Keywords: philosophy, universality, context,
truth, knowledge. 1. Introduction – the position of strong contextualism The standard philosophical world-view presumes that there exist universal truths –
propositions that hold regardless of context. In other words, that truth itself is
somehow separate (or separable) from the messy contingencies of our world.
Furthermore it often assumes that sometimes one can know these truths. This paper
considers the opposite situation, namely, the possibility that truth is by its nature
context-dependent – that truths only have meaning in a limited set of contexts and
thus they are only applicable in those contexts. One consequence of this position is
that for every proposition there is a context in which it does not hold.
This can be seen as the result of an ineradicably association of a truth with its
development, expression and application. That although some abstraction and
generalisation away from particularities is possible, it is not possible to abstract away
from all contexts and generalise to complete universality. For example, “red is a
colour” may be a generalisation from several many context-specific experiences of
different shades of red, but if one abstracts away from all experience contexts it loses
its meaning and there will be some contexts where it is simply inapplicable. This
includes those in categories such as “synthetic”, “logical” and “a priori”. As I explain
in section 5, I use the work “truth” because that is the most sensible and intuitive
term, and I am arguing against the distinctions implicit in the expression/proposition
and truth/knowledge divides – I do mean that “truth” itself is context-dependent and
not merely knowledge or expression.
This goes beyond saying (with Penco, 1999) that “there is no ultimate outer
context” for as Roger Young (1999) has shown it is possible to define absolute truth in such a situation using an abstract notion of quantifying across ever-wider contexts
– something can be defined as absolutely true if it is true in all contexts containing the
one it is posited in. Such a quantification is, of course, an absolute notion – standing
above a never-ending progression of ever wider contexts. Quite apart from this being
a utterly impractical process (how does one ever know that there will not be another
more general context in which a particular truth is false?), this notion has already
assumed the possibility of such universal notions as quantification over contexts in
order to establish the possibility of defining absolute truth in a world where there is no
“outer context”. It is possible that this sort of notion can be applied reflectively to
itself and the further quantification over meta-contexts that would be necessary etc.
but then what grounds would one have for saying that the result contains absolute
truths? Each level of establishing truth involving a quantification over contexts is
limited to its infinite set of contexts – it is conceivable that such a trans-infinite
recursion results in truly universal truths, but there are no firm grounds for saying this
would be the case (even if it were possible).
I am going further than saying there might be an infinite regression of widercontexts, I am looking at the possibility that any particular truth is linked to specific
contexts as part of its nature and cannot be applied regardless of context. This paper
argues for the coherency of such a position, looks at some of the reasons why one
might suppose this is the case and suggests how one might recover almost all of the
utility of the fictional “absolute frame of reference” as a means of facilitating
discussion by introducing “the philosophical context” without some of the more
misleading aspects implicit in the absolute version.
For want of a better term I will call such my position “strong contextualism”. This
is distinguished from both relativism and, what I will call “weak contextualism” – that
there may be universal truths but we never know them (in the strong philosophical
sense of believing them with good justification). Relativism is that the truth of all
propositions is relative to the person or viewpoint. It allows for the possibility that
from within a view point a proposition might be held (with good reason) to be true
over all contexts, unlike strong contextualism. Also strong contextualism allows for
the possibility of objective knowledge (unlike many forms of relativism) because a
proposition can be simultaneously context-dependent and objective – as long as the
context in which a proposition holds can be reliably identified by third persons
(regardless of their viewpoint) its truth within that context can be independently
This paper has a lot in common with the conclusion of (Penco, 1999), but whereas
he approaches his goal subtly examining some of the problems with objective
approaches to context, I am aiming to tackle the question “head on”.
The rest of the paper will be divided as follows. Section 2 will briefly recap my
previous analysis of the nature of context. Sections 3, 4, 5 and 6 will deal with some
obvious objections to the position: that there appear to be some universal truths; that
strong contextualism is self abnegating; that I am simply confusing truth with
knowledge or belief and that context-dependent truths can be simply converted to
context-independent ones. Sections 7, 8 and 9 will look at some more positive
arguments: suggesting some models to show the coherency of the position; looking at
some positive reasons why it is sensible; and showing that the utility of the “absolute
framework” as a means of facilitating discussion can be recovered within strong contextualism. Section 10 will indicate the context of the paper and I will conclude in
section 11. 2. Context The following analysis of context follows (Edmonds, 1999) which goes into it in
much greater depth.
The possibility of learning and inference in our complex world is dependent on the
fact that many of the possible causes of events remain relatively constant in most
circumstances. If this were not the case we would need to include all the possible
causes in our models. This relative constancy is what makes knowledge possible: we
can learn a model in one circumstance and apply it in another circumstance that is
sufficiently similar to the first. The label of ‘
context’is as a stand-in for those factors
that are not explicitly included in the models we learn, or, to put it positively, those
factors that we use to recognise when a model is applicable.
It is the possibility of the transference of knowledge from the circumstances where
they are learnt to the circumstances where they are applied which allows the
emergence of context. The utility of ‘
context’ comes from the possibility of such
transference. If this were not feasible then ‘
context’ as such, would not arise. Context
and knowledge are contingently possible because of the nature of the world. This is
illustrated below in figure1. Fig. 1. Context in the transference of knowledge between learning and application
For such a transference to be possible it is necessary that:
• some of the possible factors influencing an outcome are separable in a
• a useful distinction can be made between those factors that can be
categorised as foreground features (including ‘
causes’ and the others;
) • the background factors are capable of being recognised later on;
• the world is regular enough for such models to be at all learnable;
• the world is regular enough for such learnt models to be at all useful when
applied in situations where the context can be recognised.
While this transference of knowledge to applicable situations is the basic process,
observers and analysts of this process might identify some of these combinations of
features that allow recognition and abstract them as a ‘
context’ This usually is
possible because the transference of knowledge as models requires that the agent
doing the transference can recognise these characteristic combinations, so it is
possible that an observer might also be able to do so and give these combinations
names. On the other hand the underlying recognition mechanism may be obscure. Of
course, it may be that the agent doing the transference itself analyses and abstracts
these features, and thus makes this abstract available for reflective thought.
Specifying a context by listing all the conditions/causal factors that are not explicit
in our knowledge is impossible – this is akin to listing all the things that are not in a
box, the list is infinite. This is why contexts are things that are primarily recognised
rather than inferred. A context independent truth, from this bottom-up perspective,
would have to combine the explicit content of a model with the implicit content of the
context. This is the reason why truth is so dependent upon context – because a large
portion of its content necessarily resides there.
In this picture of things (a picture which is rooted in the process by which truths
are actually established): beliefs are learnt by interaction with the world and others;
knowledge and belief are distinguished by what can be independently validated as
reliable; and truth is the content of this knowledge. This is opposite to a picture
whereby (at least some) truths can be established by pure argument and only applied
with the addition of contingent detail later. Such an idealist picture has big problems
defining knowledge, because from this (theoretically) absolute standpoint there is no
necessity for any connection between our belief, our reasons for having the belief and
the truths it has to coincide with it is to obtain to knowledge. 3. Apparently universal truths The first objection I will deal with is that fact that there appear to be universal truths,
for example those given to us by logic, mathematics and the “hard” sciences. While I
could not hope to consider the universality of all such truths in one paper, I do hope to
indicate via a few archetypal examples how these truths might have “hidden” contexts
in which their truth is firmly embedded.
3.1 Physics The archetypal “universal truths” of physics are Newton’ laws of motion. These
are constant across frames of reference that are travelling at a constant velocity
relative to each other. It is, of course, now well known that there are some conditions of application for these laws – they hold only in the macroscopic world for velocities
that are small relative to that of light. Now it may be supposed that the process of the
contextualisation of Newton’ laws have reached an end with quantum corrections
and extensions due to the Theory of Special Relativity, but this is not the case.
General relativity means that another condition is that you are not near a large mass
(which produces an effect indistinguishable from a large acceleration) and more
recently the speed necessary for relativistic effects to become apparent has come
sharply down in special circumstances where the speed of light has been slowed (to
lower than 1 m/s).
In fact there has been a continual stream of thinking since Einstein, postulating
even more radical contractions of universality. There is a school of thought that the
different types of forces (and their accompanying “laws”) only separated as the
universe cooled in the moments after the Big Bang (Weinberg, 1988). This would
mean that many of the laws of physics depend upon a relatively cool context for their
existence. In another direction the “Anthropic principle” (Barrow and Tippler, 1986)
suggests that many aspects of our universe can be “explained” because if they were
not so we would not have evolved to formulate the laws. Quantum physics suggests
that new universes might be being created all the time forming a “foam” of distinct
universes which might have different laws of physics – it is speculated that only those
sufficiently stable to support intelligent life will have its laws recognised and
Philosophers such as Nancy Cartwright (19983) and Richard Giere (1988) who
study the process of science have documented how the application of laws to the
world is not a neat, axiomatic one but grounded in a rich scientific context which
provides the all-important rules as to how one relates models to situations. Training is
required in order to be able to successfully apply the “laws of physics” because there
is no infallible rule book but rather a mixture of processes is required including fuzzy
recognition. Nancy Cartwright goes as far as distinguishing theoretical and
phenomenological laws, claiming that theoretical laws are strictly false whilst
phenomenal laws are specific to a particular situation.
Thus although a naïve1 picture of physics characterises it as universal, the reality
(especially as revealed in its practice) shows otherwise. This is not overly surprising
– the training of a physicist is long and is not merely concerned with how to look-up
various laws. Rather the efficacy of physics lies in the ability to recognise a rich set
of contexts2, to choose and then adapt the relevant techniques.
3.2 Logic Another archetypal truth is the inference pattern implicit in “Aristotle is a man, all
men are mortal, therefore Aristotle is mortal”. This seems to be universal, but this is
merely a limitation upon our imagination – consider “This is a sentence, the meaning
1 2 Either naïve or radically systematised and simplified for didactic purposes in, for example,
As Cartwright documents scientists frequently apply different sorts of model with different
sorts of approximation simultaneously, even when these are (in strict terms) incompatible. of sentences are determined by their use, so this sentence’ meaning is determined by
its use” (i.e. this use)3. The reasoning now no longer follows so inexorably – a pattern
designed for exterior use may fall down in the presence of self-reference.
The standard response by logicians is that there is nothing wrong with the
inference pattern itself, it has been merely applied wrongly but, of course, they are
unable to give criteria for the correct application of inference patterns except by
reference to specific applications where it gives the answer they expect. They push
the problem into someone else’ court in the hope of retaining universal validity4.
This attempt is undermined by the proliferation of alternative logical formalisms, each
different from the others. They can not all be universally correct in themselves, and
although there are still a few logicians who are still holding out for the “one true
logic”, the rest are forced by the practicalities into accepting that one chooses one’
logic according to the context.
Practical reasoning – that is reasoning that actually gives useful conclusions that
work – is a world away from its models in formal logic and inevitably makes heavy
recognition and use of context. This is illustrated by the following classic example;
when subjects were told “If the light is red then the car stops” and asked “What can
you deduce from the fact that the car stops?”, the majority (of people who are not
formally trained in logic) reply “The light is red”. There was some discussion on the
PHIL-LOGIC (philosophical logic) mailing list as to why the subjects made the
wrong inference”, with the most popular explanation being that implication (if) was
confused with equivalence (if and only if). Whereas a more believable explanation is
that the question implicitly indicated to the subjects that the appropriate context is
“stopping at traffic lights” where the inference is correct (there not being any other
cause of stopping).
Again what looks like universality from afar is necessarily context-dependent in
use – so called universal laws of logic are not universally applicable.
3.3 Mathematics Pure mathematics aspires to a world of its own. It is concerned with what can be
formally proven given certain structures, assumptions etc. For example, given Peano’
axioms for arithmetic, the standard notation and some standard logical inference
operations, one can prove the statement “1+1=2”. Does this not mean that that
“1+1=2” is a universal truth, devoid of context? I would argue not.
There are two interpretations of “1+1=2”: that it is a formal sequence of symbols
that are provable from other sequences using formal rules; or that it expresses a fact
about objects in the world, namely, that putting one object together with another
object gives you two objects. I will consider these one at a time. 3 4 Or more accurately: “This is a sentence, Wittgenstein’ later philosophy suggests that the
meaning of sentences are determined by their use, so Wittgenstein’ later philosophy
suggests that the meaning of this sentence is determined by its use”.
A notable exception to this is (Adams and Levine 1976), who start to investigate the
conditions under which logical inference will hold in the face of uncertainty. If one takes the formal interpretation, then the statement “1+1=2” doesn’ have any
meaning outside that given by the formal system it is part of – it derives all of its
truth, meaning and relation to other statements from that system. It is, in other words,
entirely dependent upon the context of that system.
If “1+1=2” is about the world, it is not making an empty statement – it is saying,
for example, that two objects retain their identity when considered together, that they
don’ merge and become one (“1+1=1”), or even disappear (“1+1=0”). Now we
know that, in most circumstances this is a sensible way to consider the world – it
impinges upon us as separate and identifiable chunks. There is evidence from child
psychologists that we have, at a very early age, an ability (or bias) to view the world
in such units. The “countability” of objects is such a pervasive part of our experience
that we forget upon the huge assumptions and properties upon which it is based. Such
an interpretation does not survive a move to the context of the sub-atomic world;
there it may make far more sense to not to consider particles as discrete but as
observable manifestations of a single, continuous wave function. The point is that
when treated as a statement about the world, it is as context-dependent as any other
such statement. It does not lose this context-dependency just because it happens to be
expressible in a formal system.
There is a third interpretation, of course, but this is one that already presumes
universality as its starting point. It is that “1+1=2” is somehow indicative of a
universal truth about the relation of oneness and twoness that can be seen as an
abstraction of all the real world interpretations of “1+1=2”. The existence of such a
truth is entirely by presumption, claims for its universality are not based on any
evidence or argument but seem to rest mainly on the fact that it can be conceived to
The importance of mathematics comes from the fact that one can establish strong
mappings from it to aspects of the world and its utility from moving between the
formal realm where syntactic moves are made (for example in a calculator) and what
we are considering (for example sheep). It is when a mapping is established that the
power of mathematics becomes manifest. I suspect that it is this immensely useful
ability to map between contexts that has led some to make the mistake that
mathematical truths are universal. 4. The coherency of strong contextualism The next obvious objection to strong contextualism is that it is self-defeating. The
argument goes something like this: if all truths are context-dependent so is this,
therefore there is a context in which this is not true and so, in general, strong
contextualism is false. This argument is similar in structure to many paradoxes
including the liar paradox and Russell’ set-theory paradox.
Of course, the nub of the argument is in the words “in general”. I do claim that
truth has no meaning in general, and that includes the truth of strong contextualism.
However, that does not mean that there are universal truths – to get to the existence of
5 Such an idea can legitimately be used as a useful “fiction” or “short-hand” to simplify
expression when the context is well understood, but this is very different from believing it! universal truths from this pseudo-paradox one would have to do something such as
going from ¬ ∀ t[∃ 1(ist(t,c 1)) → ∃ 2(¬ ist(t,c 2))] – a denial of the
statement that every statement true in some context is false in another – to
∃ ∀ c(ist(t,c)) – the existence of a statement true in any context – (here t is a
truth, c1 and c2 are contexts, ∀ t stands for “all truths”, ∃ 1 stands for “there is a
context”, etc.) as in the following reasoning:
¬ ∀ t[∃ 1(ist(t,c 1)) → ∃ 2(¬ ist(t,c 2))]
∃ ¬ [∃ 1(ist(t,c 1)) → ∃ 2(¬ ist(t,c 2))]
∃ ¬ [¬ ∃ 1(ist(t,c 1)) ∨ ∃ 2(¬ ist(t,c 2))]
∃ ∃ 1(ist(t,c 1)) ∧ ¬ ∃ 2(¬ ist(t,c 2))]
∃ ¬ ∃ 2(¬ ist(t,c 2))]
∃ ∀ c2¬ (¬ ist(t,c 2))]
∃ ∀ c2(ist(t,c 2))]
∃ ∀ c(ist(t,c))
¬ ∀ to ∃
¬ ∃ to ∀ ¬
renaming symbols The trouble is that to push this argument through one already assumes the
existence of universal truths, including: the ability to quantify over all truths and all
contexts, and that negation and implication are classical (which implicitly utilises an
absolute framework in its assumptions, for example the law of the excluded middle).
Basically one is using a highly non-constructive proof that presumes that things such
as the law of the excluded middle works when quantifying over all truths and sets.
Such quantification involves quantification over structures bigger than the classes that
caused naïve set theory such problems (e.g. the set of all sets), since “φis a set” is a
truth for all sets φ
Strong contextualism is context-dependent and thus is not as strong as a putative
universal truth would be (if one existed in any meaningful sense), but it could well be
as strong as other truths that we rely upon, such as: Schrödinger’ Wave equation, the
logical rule of Modus Ponens or the arithmetical statement “1+1=2”. The fact that
strong contextualism is false in general is unthreatening, because it is trivial.
What happens if we try the argument the other way around: if in any meaningful
sense all truths are context-dependent, then this (or some closely related statement
such as “all truths except this one are context-dependent”) is universally true. Again
this fails because it assumes that just because a statement has the word “all” in it that
this must be a (truly) universal quantification rather than some meaningful
quantification relevant to the context. This brings up the nature of the context of
strong contextualism itself which I will discuss in section 7 below.
Strong contextualism is only self-negating if one takes tries to examine it from a
universal stance – the moral of these arguments is that one cannot safely mix the two.
In the next section I look at some more positive ways of addressing the coherency of
strong contextualism. 5. “Knowledge” vs. “Truth” The third objection is simply that I am using the wrong names: what I mean by
“truth” is what others call “knowledge” (or even “belief”). That “truth” can’ be
context-dependent by definition, because then it wouldn’ be “true”6. To distinguish
these I shall call the “true”=“true independent of context” nomenclature “universalist
nomenclature” and the usage as in most of this paper “contextualist nomenclature”.
Using universalist nomenclature the position of this paper would be that there are no
truths. Put this way the thesis sounds idiotic but this is due to the fact that philosophy
routinely sets an unrealistically high standard for truth (namely that it should be true
without exception in any context) whilst at the same time purporting to be able to say
something about them.
There are problems with the universalist nomenclature. Firstly, it produces
strongly counter-intuitive (dare I say unreal) results. According to this it is not “true”
that “the 192 bus goes to Manchester” despite the fact that it does! This is due to the
fact that it is possible to conceive of contexts where it is not true (e.g. Manchester in
the U.S.). In other words universalist nomenclature diverges sharply from common
parlance in, for example, most of the sciences. Secondly, it presupposes that truth and
knowledge are separable, with truth being the universal ideal which we can
sometimes obtain. This is precisely what I am arguing against.
So to be clear, I arguing that statements that almost everybody would, with good
reason, take as true are context-dependent. This includes such as “1+1=2”,
“bachelors are unmarried”, “Julius Caesar conquered Gaul” and the laws of physics. I
choose to call these “truths” because they are statements that are true! I am claiming
that even these sorts of things are context-dependent. If the reader wishes to go
through the paper replacing all instances of “true” and “truths” with “known” and
“knowledge” they are welcome to do so providing they then keep in mind that I am
arguing (in this ridiculously strong universalist nomenclature) that there are no truths
- or even all statements are false (again in this extremely strict sense). 6. Converting context -dependent to contex t-independent The final objection I will deal with is this: that every context-dependent statement can
be converted to a context-independent one by expressing its conditions explicitly.
This could be expressed as moving from ist(c, a) to c→ a.
The reason why this is not completely possible is that whenever one context is a
generalisation of some other contexts (e.g. the context of a “formal occasion”,
generalised from funerals, interviews, award ceremonies etc.) one inevitably looses
some of the meaning in the less abstract contexts, because meaning ultimately derives
from direct experience in situ. Thus if one continues to abstract away to more and
more abstract contexts, one is left with literally meaningless expressions.
Contexts are always, to some extent, recognised rather than inferred. There is no
set of conditions that one lay down that precisely describes the context. Seen as this,
6 Though how one could go about defining “truth” without begging the question is beyond me! basic context describe the edge of reason, or put more positively, allow the existence
of “crisp” inference by prescribing a huge raft of “the given”.
As anyone who has tried it will testify, making all the conditions explicit is utterly
impractical, if not impossible. 7. Two models indicating the possibility of strong contextualism In this section I discuss some formal systems that might illustrate what truth under
strong contextualism might be like. These analogies establish a sort of coherency for
7.1 A Gödelian cascade of proof systems Unlike truth, formal proof has always being accepted as system-dependent. A
proof has to be incrementally constructed from the axioms and rules of the formal
system – there is no such thing as a universal proof. The idea is to use an analogy
where truth corresponds to a formally provable fact and contexts correspond to a
Consider a formal axiomatic system, sufficiently expressive to encode arithmetic,
call it S1. Gödel’ incompleteness theorems tell us that there are facts in S1 that are
not provable in S1. However it is possible to construct a meta-system S2 in which
these facts are provable. Gödel’ incompleteness theorems apply equally to S2 so
there are facts about S2 that are only provable in a meta-meta system S3. In this way
we can construct new layers Sn as required. All facts are provable in some system Sn
but there isn’ any system in which all facts are provable.
Truth may be like provable facts in these systems – all truths are dependent upon
some context but this does not mean that there is a context in which all truths hold.
7.2 Alternative inner models in set theory In the last analogy truths collect as you get further out, a truth dependent upon a
lower context means that it also holds in all outer-contexts. Truth is not necessarily
like that, so I give a second analogy where this is not true. This time the analogy is
taken from set theory, where truth corresponds with the consistency of sets of axioms
and context corresponds with inner models that show their consistency.
Now for any proper subset of the axioms of set theory (except foundation, which is
there for technical reasons) there is a set in which all of this subset is true. This set is
called an inner model because it is a model of the working of the subset of axioms.
However (due to Gödel again) it is known that there can’ be an inner model that
showed the consistency of all the axioms of set theory, since that would mean that set
theory proved its own consistency. Thus we have different inner models showing the
consistency of different proper subsets of the axioms, but no one showing their
consistency all together. If truth does act as this analogy suggests, then there may well be different contexts
for different truths but not one context for all truths. 8. Positive reasons for supposing strong contextualism The most obvious reason for supposing strong contextualism is that all truth is
developed, established and applied in a context. It is pure supposition to believe that
despite its “home grown” nature in practice that somehow there are truths that happen
to be completely universal. Cases such as Aristotle’ syllogism and “laws” of physics
above may appear to suggest that they are universal but on closer inspection this is not
necessarily the case.
Each truth having (at least one) context upon which it was dependent provides us
with useful properties: a source for meaning; information to aid troubleshooting; and
meta-knowledge about truth. I briefly look at these in turn.
A context can help provide the meaning of the truth by reference to the contexts of
the truth’ development, establishment and application. At the most basic level one
learns the meaning of pain in a context where one experiences it, where one watches
others experiencing it and when one tries to avoid it. The experience of other,
somewhat incidental, facts that hold in these contexts gives the truth its “flavour”,
without which it would be difficult to relate to.
Knowing the context that a fact depends upon gives one valuable information
about what assumptions to question if the fact is apparently contradicted (either by
experience or another fact). Tracing back the origin or derivation of knowledge is the
only way of assessing the cause and nature of mistakes.
By naturalising the account of truth so that it becomes the collective and verifiable
counterpart to personal knowledge, we are able to examine some of the mechanisms
by which it can be identified (i.e. learnt) in the first place. In this way we may be able
to come to a fuller picture of truth that may be more useful because we can be more
aware of the mechanisms which it relies upon. 9. Recovering the utility of an “absolute framework” Given all of what I have said why has the fiction of universal truths been so popular?
I think the answer to this lies in the nature of philosophy. An absolute framework with
universal truths simplifies discussion to an enormous degree if one can use the
fictions of an absolute framework and absolute truths. It gives the impression that the
content of the discussion has universal applicability – the idea is that somehow one
could establish the universal truths first and “add in” the messy details later7. It is a
defensible position against counter-examples, which is one of the driving dynamics of
Thus I suspect the fiction of an absolute framework is rooted firmly in
philosophical practice. It facilitates philosophy to a huge extent – in fact it is almost
7 This is the implicit theory, in practice it almost never happens. as if it forms the very playing field on which philosophy is done. It would be useful to
see if some of this utility can be retained without the misleading downsides of the
If context can be characterised as an abstraction of the background/assumed
conditions of a model (Edmonds, 1999), then this indicates that a truth can be useful
in one of two circumstances: that the conditions under which it holds can be reliably
recognised; or that these conditions are so pervasive that they can be safely assumed
under “normal” conditions. In the second of these cases it can be helpful to cut out
repeated reference to the normality conditions and simplify communication through
the use of “philosophical context”, which is the context within which all the events
and discussion occur. This is a simulation of a universal framework because it is
sufficiently wide to encompass all truths that normally hold. Such a context allows
maximum generality and can be very useful in expressing objective truths in these
conditions (sometimes called a “third person viewpoint”).
What it can not do is contain counter-examples that go beyond the normal
conditions it is situated in – the sort of counter-examples that philosophy abounds
with (e.g. a landscape with facades of red barns obscuring real red barns, so that
someone passing through believes, for good reason, that there is a red barn there, but
is only correct by coincidence). This means that when these outer normality limits are
reached and such a counter-example proposed, that the response is not to elaborate
whatever proposition the example was made against, but to point the way in which the
example was abnormal. One common way in which the normality conditions implicit
in a discursive framework are breached in philosophy is via the means of reflection.
Unlimited reflection can easily be incoherent and deceptive8 in ways which can act to
distort abstraction by placing unreasonable demands upon the (self) inclusiveness of
expression9. 10. The context of strong contextualism
A legitimate question to ask of the position espoused in this paper is “What is its
context?” As one might expect, I think this is a highly legitimate (and probably
pertinent) question of any argument that even hints at universality.
The original context in which the ideas were conceived was that of listening to
philosophical discussions where I repeatedly observed how the insistence on
universality (enforced by the means of abnormal counter-examples) resulted in
conceptions that were inapplicable to the world. The ideas were further developed
when I began to appreciate how knowledge might be developed via generalisation in a
context when playing about with evolutionary learning algorithms. The context from
which I have tried to write this paper is from a third-person viewpoint examining how
we actually conceive of truth and how we might make our manipulation of truth more
9 See (Perlis, 1985, 1988) for some of the difficulties in unlimited self-reflection.
An interesting example in philosophy where language and philosophy are discussed but
without self-reference is (Wittgensein, 1975), which takes the safer and more certain option
of the sort of “third party” context I am advocating. 11. Conclusion
I hope I have shown that a naturalised and context-dependent account of truth is not
only credible and coherent but also allows for the development of a science of truth.
In this way we can simultaneously reclaim the common sense usage of the word as
well as deepening our understanding in it. The context of truths provides the “missing
half” of the picture – the essential parts of truth that not explicitly represented, but are
necessary for meaning and the explanation of error. The nature of truth can be
ultimately traced to the contexts it was derived in (or the contexts from which it was
abstracted from). Truth does not somehow exist in the abstract, separated from the
messy contingencies of the world, but is very much part of the world.
In fact, all in all, the more pertinent question is not
“Why would one suppose that truth is context -dependent?”
“Why on earth would one suppose it wasn’ in the first place ?”
t 12. References
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