February 5 Lecture - February 5, 2009 Test from Dec.1...

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February 5, 2009 Test from Dec.1 Lecture to The Venus System - Most of the blood returning through the heart returns via veins known as companion veins as they lie very close to the arteries that supply the same tissues (they run parallel to them) o As a result, most of the veins are named similarly - Veins are divided into two major groups o One drains the upper half of the body o The other drains the lower half of the body Veins that Drain Upperhalf of the Body - Veins that drain the head, neck, thorax and upper extremities - All veins converge into a single vein, the superior vena cava o This will empty into the right atrium of the heart - Superior vena cava penetrates the pericardium before entering the right atrium, but vefore entering the heart receives blood from the azygos vein (this vein runs posteriorly to the heart) o The azygos vein begins in the lower parts of the abdomen and passes up and penetrates the respiratory diaphragm From the respiratory diaphragm, it receives venus blood from the intercostals veins (which drain and ribs and intercostals muscles making up the walls of the thorax) Also picks up blood from the oesophagus and branchi from the respiratory tract All picks up blood from the pericardium itself - The distal side of the superior vena cava reveals that it is formed by the left and right brachiocephalic veins o Brachiocephalic veins are also referred to as innominate veins or innominates o The brachiocephalic veins drains blood from the head/neck region as well as the upper extremity (limb) region o There are some exceptions: some individuals may have the left brachiocephalic vein entering the right atrium independently from the right - The head and neck region are drained by two very prominent veins: the internal jugular and the external jugular o External jugular vein receives venous drainage from the scalp, face, facial muscles, muscles in the neck region (same tissues that are serviced by the external carotid artery ) External jugular is somewhat smaller in diameter than the internal jugular, and located somewhat more superficially (as it is draining the more superficial tissues of the head and neck region) Base of the external jugular joins to the subclavian vein just before the subclavian vein unites with the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein
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o Internal jugular receives the venous drainage from the brain along with some drainage from the face and neck tissues before it joins inferiorly with the subclavian vein (tissues that are serviced by the internal carotid artery are drained by the internal jugular vein ) - All of the structures that make up the upper limb are eventually drained into the subclavian vein - The deep veins follow the respective arteries and as a result bare the same nomenclature as the arteries o The subclavian vein will branch to the axillary vein through the arm pit region which will extend downwards to form the brachial vein in the upper arm which will then divide to form the
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This note was uploaded on 10/23/2011 for the course BIOL 2125 taught by Professor Dr.park during the Winter '02 term at A.T. Still University.

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February 5 Lecture - February 5, 2009 Test from Dec.1...

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