January 15 Lecture - The Endocrine System Consists of a...

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January 15, 2009 The Endocrine System - Consists of a very diverse group of tissues and structures within the body - Primary function of the endocrine system is the production of special chemical substances referred to as hormones - Dual nomenclature exists for various structures within the endocrine system o Required to know all multiple nomenclature Hormones - Hormones, in Greek, means to arouse, excite, or set in motion o Hormones are activator substances o Once substances are produced they are released into the blood stream and the vascular system distributes them across various regions of the body o Despite the fact that they are distributed around the body, hormones are only capable of activating certain locations known as target cells Target cells will have very specific, matching receptors which allows the hormone to arouse those particular cellular elements Receptors are located on the surface of the cell, or receptors that are located within the cytoplasm of the cell - Hormones are organic - There are various types of hormones that exist: o Steroids o Amino acid derivatives o Proteins - Some hormones are lipid soluble, which allows them to pass through the cell membrane (as the cell membrane is made of phospholipids) and may connect to receptors within the cytoplasm of the cell - Water soluble hormones generally act on surface receptors (receptors that are part of the surface of the cell membrane) - Hormones from various vertebrate species are very similar at the chemical level o Allows humans have been able to make use of hormones from nonhuman sources (example for those individuals who suffer from hormone individuals – cattle, pigs, sheep) - Purpose of hormones once introduced and distributed to the body o Regulate important physiological processes in the body in an attempt to maintain homeostasis (referring to constancy of conditions – thermal, biochemical, osmotic, etc.) - Hormones are ubiquitous and evasive throughout the body o Hormones are found in the body at birth and last throughout the lifetime Endocrine versus the Nervous System - Brain is responsible in regulating actions of the body via axons that extend throughout the body - Endocrine system (chemical brain) controls activity of the body via chemical messengers, hormones
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- We are as dependent on the endocrine system as we are the neurological system to surface - Some processes in the body rely heavily on both the endocrine and nervous system Structures of the Endocrine System - Pituitary Gland - Thyroid Gland o Has an endocrine function - Parathyroid glands o Heavily associated with the thyroid gland, only in more recent years that they are involved in the endocrine system - Adrenal gland o Originally associated with the kidneys
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January 15 Lecture - The Endocrine System Consists of a...

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