March 17 Lecture - March 17, 2009 The Renal System An...

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March 17, 2009 The Renal System An Overview - Consists of a variety of different organs o The kidneys Located in the lumbar portion of the body Considered part of the abdominal viscera, however they are not located in the abdominal cavity The front surface of the kidney are covered by the peritoneum which lines the abdominal cavity They are compressed against the muscles which make up the dorsal wall of the body This has a clinical importance: any type of kidney surgery is generally conducted not through the dorsal cavity but through the dorsum and separating the muscles which make up the wall This allows the peritoneum to remain closed and lowers the risk of infection Entering the peritoneum increases the risk of infection and this can spread o Ureter Attached to the kidneys Drain products of the kidney to the urinary bladder o Urinary bladder o Urethra The means through which theurine exits the body Displays sexual dichotomy between males and females Vascularization of the Renal System - Renal artery enters the kidney off of the aorta - Renal vein will enter the inferior vena cava from the kidney The Kidneys - The kidney is involved in three major functions within the body o Filter and excrete waste products Also retains some materials which are essential to homeostasis Constantly filtering the blood of the body and pick up substances which are nonessential or even toxic to some organs in the body while retaining those which are important to homeostasis o Retaining osmolar homeostasis The concentration of various solutes in the body is regulated, which controls the amount of water which is present in body tissues Maintains hydration and at the same time prevents dessication/dehydration at the cellular tissue level o Maintains acid-base balance within the body
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Body must be kept at a constant pH in order to continue functioning at an optimal level It is the renal system to a large extent that controls the H + concentration within the body to maintain an optimal pH - The kidney is encapsulated by a relatively tough capsule known as the renal capsule - Directly below the capsule is the renal cortex o The cortex is relatively homogenous - Beneath the renal cortex is a medulla o The medulla consists of triangularly shaped structures which are known as the renal pyramids o There are 10-14 renal pyramids found in the kidney - Each renal pyramid buts off against a minor calyx - 2-3 minor calyx merge to form the major calyx - Major calyx will merge together to form a central region known as the renal pelvis o This funnels into the ureter where the urine is drained - The renal artery arises from the aorta and enters the kidney by means of the renal pelvis o This will divide into various arteries which will extend out into the cortical tissue - The blood in the kidney is returned via small renal veins through the cortical tissue then the renal pyramids, and eventually to the renal vein and it will enter the inferior vena
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This note was uploaded on 10/23/2011 for the course BIOL 2125 taught by Professor Dr.park during the Winter '02 term at A.T. Still University.

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March 17 Lecture - March 17, 2009 The Renal System An...

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