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Unformatted text preview: March 19, 2009 The Renal System Characteristics- The system is bilaterally symmetrical- The kidneys are bilaterally symmetrical but do exhibit a different location in the body o The right kidney is lower, found in the lumbar region- The development of the renal system begins very early in gestation- During development, the kidneys begin developing in the pelvic region (near the bladder) and as they grow they move upwards to the lumbar regions- This usually occurs without problems, but sometimes a kidney does not move upward to its proper conditions o In some cases one or more of the kidneys does not become attached to the posterior (dorsal) wall – known as a floating kidney this can be a congenital condition or it can arise later in life (ex. truck drivers due to jarring activity) o Sometimes during development, the embryonic kidneys are in close proximity to each other, and the upper poles of the two kidneys may become joined together as they migrate upward, forming a horse-shoe shaped structure known as a horse shoe kidney o In about 10-15% of the human population, there is some type of renal anomalies (only 1 kidney, the other did not development, horse shoed kidney, etc.) Processes in the Kidney The Nephron- The major process which occurs in the nephron, is filtration- 180 L of fluid pass through the glomeruli per day- Reabsorption will occur through the tubular fraction of the nephron o H 2 O is reabsorbed along the length of the mater 178.5 L of water will be reabsorbed in a day o Solutes are also reabsorbed, mostly in the proximal tubule (smaller amounts in distal and collecting tubule)- Secretion also occurs in the tubules from the surrounding tissues- Different hormones will allow variability in the urine, which effect the distal convoluted tubule (?) of the nephron- The level of urine production drops during period of sleep o This means that the bladder is able to accommodate most of the urine which is formed during the sleeping hours The Ureter- The ureters are paired structure, one for each kidney- A hollow muscular tube which attaches each kidney to the bladder- 10-12 inches in length- A funnel-like section will directly attach to the renal hilum of the kidney (the location where the ureter and blood vessels exit the kidney from the renal pelvis)- The wall of the ureter is composed of smooth muscle (it is under involuntary control)- The lining of the ureter is transitional epithelium o This type of epithelium is found exclusively in the renal system (bladder + urethra as well)- The distal end of the ureter enters the bladder from the posterior wall on the oblique angle- This leaves a small flap of mucous membrane right at the entrance of the ureter into the bladder o This is very important because during the process of voiding, there is increased pressure within the bladder and acts as a safe guard or check valve and prevents … ?...
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- Winter '02
- Anatomy, Ureter