October 2 Lecture - October 2 2008 The Skeletal System...

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October 2, 2008 The Skeletal System Terminology and Naming Depression or opening: - Fossa: a hull or depression in bone o Seen in skulls o ex. Mandibular fossa Impression in the temporal bone, where manible is attached to skull - Sinus: a cavity or sponge filled space o Ex. Frontal sinuses – run around eyes sponge filled cavity - Foramen: a round hole in a bone o Ex. Foramen magnum Hole at the base of the skull at which the spinal cord exits, associated with the occipital bone - Fissure: a slit shaped hole - Canal (or meatus): a tube like hole o Ex. External Auditory Meatus: tube like structure that leads to the lateral portion of the skull Projections (sometimes referred to as processes): - Condyle: a rounded articular projection that constitutes part of a joint o Ex. Occipital condyles are found at the base of the skull - Head: the large rounded end of the bone o Ex. the head of the femur (comprises part of the hip joint) - Trochanter: a large, usually blunt process, sometimes the sight of muscle attachment o Ex. trochanter of the femur - Tuberosity: a large often rough projection o Ex. Ischium’s tuberosity - Tuberoule: a modification of the tuberosity, a smaller rounded projection o Ex. tuberoule of the humorous - Spine: a sharp pointed projection o Ex. spine on the vertebral column or spine on the scapula o Can refer to all the bones in vertebral column - Hamulus: shaped like a hook o Ex. hamulus of the sphenoid bone Ridges on Bones: - Crest: a prominent ridge o Ex. the iliac crest (the upper portion of the large hip bone, where breasts develop) - Line: a slight ridge o Distinction between crest and line can be somewhat subjective Grooves: - Sulcus o Ex. saggital sulcus that runs down the midline of the skull Two Divisions of Skeleton For anatomical studies, the skeleton is divided into two main parts:
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1. Axial skeleton o Contains bones of the head, vertebral column, and bones of the thorax (rib cage, etc.) o Comprised of about 80 different bones 2. Appendicular skeleton o Made up of bones of the pectogurdal (shoulder region) and bones of the forelimbs (arms and legs), bones of pelvis and lower extremities o Comprised of about 126 bones - There are 8 bones in the cranium - There are 14 bones in the facial region - There are 6 bones in the ears Histology of Bone - Bone is a connective tissue - Osseous tissue – hardened bone - Ridged substance of connective tissue because the ground substance is a hardened material - Bone makes up most of the skeleton - Osseous tissue is comprised of the three basic components found in connective tissue: o Ground substance High concentration of mineral salts Calcium Phosphate, Calcium Hydroxide, Calcium Carbonate, Sodium and Magnesium Salts are also abundant, Fluoride Two thirds of the bone mass is comprised of the mineral salts The presence of the mineral salts are what makes the bones hard and brittle
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October 2 Lecture - October 2 2008 The Skeletal System...

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