October 14 Lecture - October 14, 2008 The Axial Skeleton:...

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October 14, 2008 The Axial Skeleton: Vertebral Column - During childhood and adolescence that typical curvature of the spine begins to appear, originally it will be straight (concave and convex portions will not make their appearance until late childhood, or early adolescence - Malformation can occur o Kyphosis is an exaggerated curve in the thoracic region o Lordosis is a curvature in the lumbar region o Scoliosis: is a curve that shifts one way and another, collapsing in of thorasic cage may occur (causes respiratory difficulties, and cardiovascular stress) Frontal View of Rib Cage - Costae: ribs, form the lateral walls of the rib cage - Ribs are long slender bones attached to the thoracic vertebrae behind, and curve gently forward to the sternum in the front - Between the ribs are the intercostals muscles - Cross section of a rib is distinct: o Forms a costal groove at the base Within the costal groove is vascularization and nerves which surface the intercostals muscles. They also offer some protection and security in the costal groove - Rib is made up of many structures: o Head: attaches to vertebrae (vertebral arch and tubercule, which contains a facet or tubercule that attaches to the vertebrae o Neck: connects the head of the rib to the shaft of the rib o Shaft: bends forward and makes indirect connection with sternum at front, makes posterior lateral and anterior portion of the rib cage o Angle of the rib: portion where the greatest curve occurs o Rib terminates against portion of cartilage (costal cartilage) which then attaches to the sternum - The first seven ribs attach directly to costal cartilage and then to the sternum o These are true ribs - The 8 th , 9 th , and 10 th ribs have a costal cartilage that does not extend into its own costal cartilage, instead they mesh into the costal cartilage above it o These are false ribs - The last two pairs of ribs (11 and 12) do not have a cartilaginous end, they float free within the musculature of the wall o Called floating ribs - Thoracic cage is funnel shaped, wider as you descend into abdominal region - Ring at top of thoracic cage (composed of first pair of ribs, manubrium, and costal cartilage) makes a thoracic inlet
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o Number of blood vessels and nerves extend through this inlet - Costal cartilage is relatively flexible o Applications to thoracic surgery: incisions can be made through the intercostals
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October 14 Lecture - October 14, 2008 The Axial Skeleton:...

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