October 21 Lecture - October 21, 2008 Arthrology - The...

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October 21, 2008 Arthrology - The study of joints or articulations - Joints provide mobility within the body o Mobility has a cost: at the expense of strength or durability - Any joint compromises strength in order to provide mobility - Joint is a junction of two or more bones which is surrounded by a fibrous capsule o Usually, not always - Bones of the joint are held together by ligaments Tendons join muscle to bone - Different joints have different designs o Direction in which movement is possible is determined by the design o Magnitude of movement (scope or range of movement) is also determined by the design Classification of Joints - Joints can be classified by the amount of movement (degree of motion that they permit) o Immovable Synarthrosis Fixed, basically permit no movement or motion Strong joints Bones that make up joint are held together by fibrous (cartilaginous) tissue Many synarthrosis fuse together over time Ex. cranial sutures, sacroiliac joint o Permits movement at birth, but will eventually become an immovable joint (normally in the first few years of life) Ex. fused vertebrae in the sacrum, tooth and alveolar margin of jaw o Slightly movable amphiarthrosis Bone in these joints may have a fibrous or cartilaginous connection between them Relatively firm but permit movement and flexibility Ex. pubic symphysis, joints between adjacent cervical thorasic and lumbar vertebrae o Pubic symphysis is quite flexibile, especially during pregnancy o Highly movable (freely movable) diarthrosis or synovial Make up most of the joints in the body Found most all joints of the limbs Have a number of features: Articular capsule Synovial cavity containing synovial fluid (found within capsule) Ligaments which connect the two bones (reinforce connection) Hyaline cartilage surrounds the bones (absorbs compression caused by the two bones meeting and provides smooth (fluid) movement of the joint)
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Inner surface of the capsule is surrounded by a membrane called the synovial membrane o Secretes a fluid substance called synovial fluid o Synovial fluid absorbs shock, provides nourishment for cartilaginous surfaces of opposing bones (this is because cartilage is avascular so nutrients must be transported
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October 21 Lecture - October 21, 2008 Arthrology - The...

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