October 23 Lecture - October 23, 2008 Some Disorders...

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October 23, 2008 Some Disorders Associated with Joints - Strains: affected the tendons associated with a joint o Tendons are stretched or torn to some degree - Sprains: Ligaments have been torn to some degree o Ligaments are more serious – primary stabilizers of a joint o Knee joints, ankle joints, lumbar region of the back o Partially torn ligaments can be stitched together, and will eventually heal Healing process is relatively slow due to the fact that the ligament is avascular o If ligament is completely torn, more aggressive repairs must be initiated: Ligament may have to be replaced with a substitute tissue (sometimes a muscle tendon is stapled to the articulated bones where it will grow in place) - Dislocation: occurs when bones are forced out of their natural position or alignment o Commonly occurs in: shoulder, finger, thumb, o Repeated dislocation will result in an increased stretching of a ligment – making the joint less stable - Bursitis: inflammation of the bursal sacs associated with joints o Bursae sacs secrete synovial fluid and are lined by synovial membrane o Can be caused by bacteria or over use of joints o Carpenters often suffer from bursitis of the shoulder o House-maid’s knee: bursae of the knee joints o Treatments (for excessive use and frictional causes): inject joint with anti- inflammatory drugs (doesn’t fix cause, but reduces symptoms – swelling) - Tendonitis: inflammation of the tendon sheaths o Tendon sheaths maintain integrity of the tendon and become inflamed Effected by similar causes to bursitis o Tennis elbow: repeating flexion and extension of the elbow
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Age Related Joint Disorders - Rheumatism: a broad term that refers to pain or stiffness in the skeletal and muscular system (sometimes both), may involve some of the binding structures such as tendons and ligaments - Arthritis: includes all forms of rheumatism that result in damage to the articular surfaces of the synovial joint o Involves swelling of the joint as a result of the inflammation and degredation of the cartilaginous tissue o Several types of arthritis: Osteoarthritis Damage to articular surfaces of the joint as a result of normal wear and tear of joint or may also be due to genetic factors that impair normal structure and function of the collagen fibres in the tissue Usually seen in individuals 60 years of age or older, generally affects weight-bearing joints (hips and knees), one of the major reasons for hip and knee replacement Rheumatoid arthritis An inflammatory condition, Can stem from infection, allergic reactions, autoimmune response (body starts producing antibodies against itself, neurological
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This note was uploaded on 10/23/2011 for the course BIOL 2125 taught by Professor Dr.park during the Winter '02 term at A.T. Still University.

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October 23 Lecture - October 23, 2008 Some Disorders...

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