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Unformatted text preview: APS1001H Module 7: People Module 7 – People
v2009 People: Outline
• Organizational theory
• Power and influence
• Virtual teams 2 v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. 1 APS1001H Module 7: People Project HR Management
Develop human resource plan Planning Initiating Monitoring &
Manage project team Acquire project team
Develop project team Executing Closing 3 Organizational Theory
• Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
• Motivation - hygiene
• Theories X, Y
• Expectancy theory
• Situational leadership PMBOK Guide 18.104.22.168
4 2 v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. APS1001H Module 7: People Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs SELFACTUALIZATION
SAFETY AND SECURITY NEEDS
PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS 5 v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. 3 APS1001H Module 7: People HERZBERG’S MOTIVATION – HYGIENE THEORY
Although Herzberg’s research was performed in the 1960's his theory is still
being applied today. A study performed in the mid-1990’s by Canadian Jim
Phillipchuk and John Whittaker was designed to validate Herzberg’s original
study. They used a written survey of 75 engineers in a Canadian utility
company. The factors affecting job satisfaction could be classified into two
distinct categories: motivators that contribute to job satisfaction and hygiene
factors that account for job dissatisfaction. No new factors were found, but
salary and working conditions were absent. They concluded the theory was
valid. MOTIVATION AND PRODUCTIVITY
Giving your employees a well-deserved pat on the back is an easy way to spark
productivity, Entrepreneur magazine says. Yet business consultants say that
such praise is startlingly rare. Workers ordinarily get four or more pokes for every
stroke they receive from the boss. Most bosses still seem to believe that the path
to peak performance is to imitate an army drill sergeant. “Praise is how we get
high performance,” says California University business professor David Banner.
If you’re not telling your people what they’re doing right, how are they ever
supposed to know? The more you tell them what you appreciate, the more of it
they will do.1 1 Globe and Mail, unknown date 4 v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. APS1001H Module 7: People Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene
• “Hygiene factors”:
• Company policy and administration • Supervisory styles • Interpersonal relations • Working conditions • Salary • Job security 6 Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene
• Hygiene factors are related to job environment
• If not perceived to be at a fair level, there will be
dissatisfaction 7 v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. 5 APS1001H Module 7: People Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene
• Achievement • Recognition of achievement • The work itself (nature and meaningfulness) • Responsibility • Growth advancement 8 Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene
• Motivators are related to job content
• If missing, will not bring about dissatisfaction /
• But if present, will provide satisfaction 9 6 v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. APS1001H Module 7: People Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene
• Therefore, meet the hygiene factors, and ...
• Provide “job enrichment”, for example:
• Remove some controls, make accountable • Assign a complete natural unit of work • Additional authority, job freedom • Introduce new and more difficult tasks • Assign specialized tasks, allowing person • to become expert
10 McGregor’s Theory X and Y
THEORY X (autocratic) THEORY Y (democratic) people want situations well-defined;
and to carry out orders people have creative capacity and
want to use it some people are strong, wise,
aggressive and creative most people can be developed to be
wise, strong, and aggressive a manager gives orders, does not
explain a manager encourages participation
in all decisions at all levels people want to be controlled and
directed people want to make their own
decisions and resent coercion people are happy when under wise
and tight control people are happiest when given
wide responsibilities and will rise to
the occasion with experience
11 v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. 7 APS1001H Module 7: People Expectancy Theory
• Assumes people think seriously about how much
effort to put into a task before performing it.
it EFFORT? CAN I
PERFORM? IF I
WILL IT BE
REWARDED? DO I
REWARD? 12 Discussion Question
• How can you apply the preceding theories, to get
motivated staff or team members?
• Write answers on the accompanying page 13 8 v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. APS1001H Module 7: People HOW CAN I APPLY ALL OF THE ABOVE?
What can I do to apply these theories, to get motivated team members? Write your answers
in the left hand column. In the column on the right, list which theory applies, if any.
Other v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. 9 APS1001H Module 7: People Optional Video: “Where There’s a
• Confidence in the value of their job
• Show the context of their task
the context their task
• Setting an example
• Importance of their contribution
• Confidence in their value as individuals
• Concern for their personal welfare
• Confidence in their value as a team
• Feel like a team
• Think like a team
• Work like a team
14 Theories of Leadership
• Started with “trait theory”
• Then went to “behavioristic theory”
• Then to “situational leadership”, that leader
behavior can consist of ...
• Production orientation, & • Employee orientation • Leadership “can & must be learned”
PMBOK Guide 1.5.5
15 10 v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. APS1001H Module 7: People LEADERSHIP CAN AND MUST BE LEARNED2
Over the last 50 years, Peter F. Drucker has discussed with hundreds of leaders their roles,
goals, and performance. He’s come to some strong conclusions.
Leadership can and must be learned.
First, while there may be born leaders, there are far too few of them to depend upon.
Leadership therefore, can and must be learned.
No Leadership ‘Personality’
Second, there is no “leadership personality.” And “leadership traits” do not exist. Says Drucker,
“Among the most effective leaders I have encountered and worked with in a half-century, some
locked themselves into their offices, and others were ultra-gregarious. Some (though not many)
were ‘nice guys’ and others were stern disciplinarians.”
Some were quick and impulsive, while others studied the situation and took forever to come to a
decision. Some finally, were good listeners, while others were loners who listened to nothing but
their own inner counsel.
The leaders did have something in common. Not one had much -- or any -- “charisma.”
The most effective leaders know four simple things:
• The only definition of a leader is someone who has followers.
• An effective leader is not someone who loved or admired. Popularity isn’t leadership; results
• Leaders are highly visible. They set examples.
Leadership is not rank, privileges, or money. It is responsibility. 2 Soundview Executive Book Summaries, unknown date v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. 11 APS1001H Module 7: People THE 7 TRAITS OF LEADERS:
HOW MANY DO YOU SHARE?4
Are leaders born or made? Can you learn superior leadership skills? No one is sure, but
experts have noticed seven specific behaviours that successful leaders carry out,
regardless of the organization or cause they lead.
..Make others feel important. If your goals and decisions are self-centered, followers will
lose their enthusiasm quickly. Emphasize their strength and contributions, not your own.
...Promote a vision. Followers need a clear idea of where you are leading them, and they
need to understand why the goal is valuable to them. Your job as a leader is to provide that
...Follow the Golden Rule. Treat your followers the way you enjoy being treated. An
abusive leader attracts few loyal followers.
...Admit mistakes. If people suspect that your covering up your own errors, they’ll hide
their mistakes, too, and you’ll lack valuable information for making decisions.
...Criticize others only in private. Public praise encourages others to excel, but public
criticism only embarrasses and alienates everyone.
...Stay close to the action. You need to be visible to the members of your organization.
Talk to people, visit other offices and work sites, ask questions, and observe how business
is being handled. Often you will gain new insights into your work and find new opportunities
for motivating your followers.
...Make a game of competition. The competitive drive can be a valuable tool if you use it
correctly. Set team goals, and reward members who meet or exceed them. Examine your
failures, and celebrate your group’s success. 4 The Toastmaster, unknown date 12 v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. APS1001H Module 7: People A Model of Situational
INPUT TO DECISION HIGH 100 LOW 0 CONSENSUS
AUTOCRAT SHAREHOLDER 0
GROUP ONLY AUTOCRAT DECISION AUTHORITY 100
LEADER ONLY Slevin & Pinto, PMJ, March 1991.
16 Bonoma/Slevin Leadership Model
• Autocrat (100,0)
• Solicit little information
Make decision themselves • Consultative autocrat (100,100)
• Intensive information elicited
Make decision themselves • Consensus manager (0,100)
• Throw open problem to group for discussion
Group to make decision • Shareholder manager (0,0)
17 v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. 13 APS1001H Module 7: People Bonoma/Slevin Leadership Model
• Leader response may depend upon ... 1. Attributes of the problem
• Urgency, importance, routine, etc 2. Organizational environment
• Culture, etc 3. Nature of the team members
• “Maturity” 4. Leader personality
18 14 v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. APS1001H Module 7: People v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. 15 APS1001H 16 Module 7: People v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. APS1001H Module 7: People v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. 17 APS1001H Module 7: People Leadership Exercise…
What Direction To Behave In?
INPUT TO DECISION HIGH 100 LOW 0 CONSENSUS
AUTOCRAT N W E S
GROUP ONLY AUTOCRAT DECISION AUTHORITY 100
LEADER ONLY Slevin & Pinto, PMJ, March 1991.
20 18 v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. APS1001H Module 7: People LEADERSHIP EXERCISE5
You are the Project Manager. How should you handle a decision under the following
circumstances. Express your answer simply as a direction (North, South, North-East,
South-West, etc.). Be prepared to answer "why?"
1. Conflict (within the group) is likely to result from the decision. 2. You lack adequate time to make the decision properly. 3. Good leader-group relations exist. 4. The decision is important or critical for you personally. 5. The answer is structured or routine. 6. Decision implementation by your subordinates is crucial to success. 7. Your organization is highly formalized (command and control). 8. You lack relevant information; problem is ambiguous. 9. Conditions are stressful. 10. Staff perform creative tasks. 11. You (the leader) are young or inexperienced. 5 Adapted from D.P. Slevin and J.K. Pinto, "Project leadership: understanding and consciously
choosing your style", in PMNETwork, March, 1994. v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. 19 APS1001H Module 7: People “I’ve Got The Responsibility But Not The
• Project manager may have little or no authority
• Functional managers • User representatives • Client contacts • Authorities, other external stakeholders
other external stakeholders • Other project managers competing for resources • Or even his/her own team members
• How Can I Improve My Power & Influence?
• (What Can I Do To Get Things Done?) 22 20 v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. APS1001H Module 7: People Develop and Manage Project Team
• Effective team essential, by nature of project
• Unique • Limited duration • Multidisciplinary team • Differing backgrounds, interests, allegiances • Lack of team-building the source of (or contributor
to) most project problems PMBOK Guide 9.3 and 9.4
23 Goals of Team Development
• Consensus on project goals and objectives
• Enjoy working together
• Cross-fertilization of ideas, for creativity &
• Loyalty to the project and the PM
• Team spirit / morale
• Trust! 24 v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. 21 APS1001H Module 7: People Project Teams: What is Wrong With This
Picture ? LEADER 25 Project Teams: Size vs.
Effectiveness SIZE SPEED QUALITY 3 HIGH LOW 5 HIGH BETTER 7 SLOW BEST 9-11 SLOWER BEST TO BETTER 12+ SLOWEST BETTER TO LOW 26 22 v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. APS1001H Module 7: People SUPPORTIVE BEHAVIOUR
BY LEADER Tuckman’s Model of Team
Development NORMING PERFORMING STORMING FORMING TASK BEHAVIOUR BY LEADER
(DIRECTIVE) 28 The Team Building Process
1. Plan for team building
2. Negotiate for team members?
3. Organize the team 29 v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. 23 APS1001H Module 7: People The Team Building Process
4. Hold a kickoff meeting
• Introductions • “Break the ice” • Working relationships, communication lines • Set goals and objectives • Review project status & plans • Identify problem areas • Establish individual and group responsibilities
30 The Team Building Process
5. Obtain commitments from members
• Time commitment • Role commitment • Project priority commitment 6. Build communication links
7. Conduct team building exercises
• Very early 31 24 v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. APS1001H Module 7: People The Team Building Process
8. Incorporate team building activities into project
• Meetings & reviews • Off-site meetings • Recognition • Social • Thorough introduction of new members • Keep informed of news - good and bad
• Is any situation where your concerns or desires
differ from another person’s ...
• Can range from a friendly discussion to
• Emotional conflict is interpersonal
• Substantive conflict is over the work itself
is over the work itself 33 v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. 25 APS1001H Module 7: People Views of Conflict
Caused by trouble-makers CONTEMPORARY VIEW
Exists in all organizations
Natural result of change Bad Often beneficial Should be avoided
Must be suppressed Stimulates evaluation of new
facts or solutions
May increase group cohesion
Can and should be managed
Let’s stimulate discussion
about the conflict!
34 Conflict Exercise: Part 1
• Identify three possible conflict situations for the
• Use the project WBS • Or use your own project
• Define the conflicts and who are they between.
• Be specific!
• Do not resolve the conflict 35 26 v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. APS1001H Module 7: People Conflict Management Techniques
• Avoiding (withdrawing)
• Passive • Doesn’t solve the problem • Can provide a cooling-off period 36 Conflict Management Techniques
• Smoothing (accommodating)
• De-emphasize differences, emphasize
commonalities • Keeps atmosphere friendly • But only temporary 37 v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. 27 APS1001H Module 7: People Conflict Management Techniques
• Bargaining to an “acceptable” resolution • Usually satisfies no-one • But is decisive 38 Conflict Management Techniques
• Competing (forcing)
• Use as last resort • Win-lose • Fosters antagonisms • But is rapid and decisive 39 28 v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. APS1001H Module 7: People Conflict Management Techniques
• Integrating (problem solving collaborating)
• Confront the problem • Collect info, develop alternatives, analyze & select • Optimizes a solution • Separates people from the problem • “Win-win” • But is time-consuming 40 Conflict Management Techniques
(or ACCOMMODATING) INTEGRATING
( or PROBLEM- SOLVING
or COLLABORATING) RELATIONSHIPS
LOW (or WITHDRAWAL)
(or FORCING) OBJECTIVES ORIENTATION HIGH
41 v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. 29 APS1001H Module 7: People Conflict Exercise: Part 2
• For each of the conflicts from Part 1, decide on a
conflict response strategy
• Be specific – what would you do?
• Categorize the response into one of the five
• Refer to the next page (“when to use…”) for ideas
to the next page
for ideas 42 30 v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. APS1001H Module 7: People WHEN TO USE EACH CONFLICT MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUE8
Withdrawal: When you cannot win
When the stakes are low
When the stakes are high, but you are not ready yet
To gain time
To unnerve your opponent
To preserve neutrality or reputation
When you think the problem will go away
When you win by delay Smoothing: To reach an overarching goal
To create obligation for a trade-off at a later date
When the stakes are low, or to gain time
When liability is limited
To maintain harmony
When any solution will be adequate
To create goodwill (be magnanimous)
When you will lose anyway Compromise: When both parties need to be winners
When you cannot win
When others are as strong as you are
When you haven't time to win
To maintain your relationship with your opponent
When you are not sure you are right
When you get nothing if you don't
When stakes are moderate
To avoid giving the impression of "fighting" Forcing: When you are right, and stakes are high
When a "do or die" situation exists
When important principles are at stake
When you are stronger
To gain status or demonstrate power
In short-term, one-shot deals
When the relationship is unimportant
When it is understood that a "game" is being played Problem-solving: When you both get at least what you wanted and maybe more
To reduce costs
To create a common power base or to attack a common foe
When skills are complementary
When there is enough time
When there is trust
When you have confidence in the other person's ability
To maintain future relationships 8 Thomas and Kilmann v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. 31 APS1001H Module 7: People Virtual Teams Are More Complex
• They cross boundaries
• Time • Distance • Language • Culture • Organization • They use technology to communicate 43 32 v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. APS1001H Module 7: People VIRTUAL TEAMS3
“I’m working as a project manager on a construction site in Indonesia. Our design
office is in the United States, the prime engineering contractor is in Germany,
detailed drafting and construction occurs in Indonesia, and most of the supplies
come from Australia.
“The global, multicultural and multi-language nature of this project introduces
many communication challenges to the technical challenge of the project.
“The lesson I’ve re-learned recently is that many things that are simple in a
“same place, same time, same culture” project are sometimes enormously
difficult on a world wide project level.
“I find that it is important to assume and plan for the additional effort and time that
communication for these types of projects requires. Having said this, it is still
amazing when everything clicks and to witness that quantity and quality of work
that gets accomplished in any 24-hour time frame.” 3 from an e-mail discussion group, author unknown v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. 33 APS1001H Module 7: People Virtual Teams –
How to Make Them Work? 44 34 v2009 © Procept Associates Ltd. ...
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- Spring '09