319 exam1 study guide 2008

319 exam1 study guide 2008 - 76 AnS 319 Animal Nutrition...

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76 AnS 319 Animal Nutrition Spring, 2008 Exam 1 Study Guide 1. How much saliva is produced by herbivores vs. carnivores vs. omnivores (relative quantities)? Carnivores – minimal Omnivores – little Ruminant herbivores – most – cattle 130-180L, horse 10-12L, sheep 3-10L 2. Which species secrete digestive enzymes in their saliva? Dogs – no saliva Ruminants – no digestive enzymes in mature animals 3. How is jaw movement different in carnivores, ruminant herbivores, and horses? Carnivores – jaws up and down Ruminant Herbivores – lateral motions Non ruminant herbivores/horse - circular 4. Which jaw muscles are most developed in carnivores vs. herbivores? Carnivores – temporalis, Coronoid process Herbivores – Masseter, Coronoid absent 5. Identify each segment of the digestive tract, from mouth to anus, in monogastric carnivores, omnivores, and herbivores, in avian species and in ruminants, and be able to distinguish pre-gastric fermenters from post-gastric fermentors based on the digestive tract. Include the 3 segments of the small intestine. Carnivores/Omnivores/Herbivores Mouth, esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine (Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum,) Large Intestine (Cecum, Colon, Rectum) Avian Mouth (no teeth, little saliva glands), esophagus, crop, proventriculus (HCl, pepsin), Gizzard (ventriculus), small intestine, 2 ceca, large intestine – very short Ruminant Mouth, esophagus (striated), reticulum, rumen, omasum, abomasums, small intestine, large intestine Pre-gastric Fermenters Ruminants – cattle sheep, deer, antelope Non-ruminants – hamster, hippos, kangaroo Post-gastric fermenters Cecal – rabbit, rat, mice Colonic digesters Sacculated – horse, elephant, zebra, pig, human Unsacculated – panda, dog, cat 6. Which enzymes are secreted in each area of the digestive tract, and what are their functions? Carbohydrates – Amylase – saliva, pancreas Maltase/Lactase/Sucrase – SI (BB) Proteins Rennin – Gastric mucosa Pepsin – gastric mucosa Trypsin – Pancreas Chymotrypsin – Pancreas Carboxypeptidase – Pancreas Aminopeptidase – SI (BB) Lipids Lipase/Colipase – Pancreas Enterokinase – activates trypsinogen trypsin Nuclease – Pancreas
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7. Where is digestion initiated for each class of nutrients?
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319 exam1 study guide 2008 - 76 AnS 319 Animal Nutrition...

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