Exam 1 Study Guide
1. How much saliva is produced by herbivores vs. carnivores vs. omnivores (relative quantities)?
Carnivores – minimal
Omnivores – little
Ruminant herbivores – most – cattle 130-180L, horse 10-12L, sheep 3-10L
2. Which species secrete digestive enzymes in their saliva?
Dogs – no saliva
Ruminants – no digestive enzymes in mature animals
3. How is jaw movement different in carnivores, ruminant herbivores, and horses?
Carnivores – jaws up and down
Ruminant Herbivores – lateral motions
Non ruminant herbivores/horse - circular
4. Which jaw muscles are most developed in carnivores vs. herbivores?
Carnivores – temporalis, Coronoid process
Herbivores – Masseter, Coronoid absent
5. Identify each segment of the digestive tract, from mouth to anus, in monogastric carnivores, omnivores, and
herbivores, in avian species and in ruminants, and be able to distinguish pre-gastric fermenters from post-gastric
fermentors based on the digestive tract.
Include the 3 segments of the small intestine.
Mouth, esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine (Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum,) Large Intestine (Cecum, Colon,
Mouth (no teeth, little saliva glands), esophagus, crop, proventriculus (HCl, pepsin), Gizzard (ventriculus), small
intestine, 2 ceca, large intestine – very short
Mouth, esophagus (striated), reticulum, rumen, omasum, abomasums, small intestine, large intestine
Ruminants – cattle sheep, deer, antelope
Non-ruminants – hamster, hippos, kangaroo
Cecal – rabbit, rat, mice
Sacculated – horse, elephant, zebra, pig, human
Unsacculated – panda, dog, cat
6. Which enzymes are secreted in each area of the digestive tract, and what are their functions?
Amylase – saliva, pancreas
Maltase/Lactase/Sucrase – SI (BB)
Rennin – Gastric mucosa
Pepsin – gastric mucosa
Trypsin – Pancreas
Chymotrypsin – Pancreas
Carboxypeptidase – Pancreas
Aminopeptidase – SI (BB)
Lipase/Colipase – Pancreas
Enterokinase – activates trypsinogen
Nuclease – Pancreas