Bio 311-Outline 1 - Test 1 Outline Cell biology and society...

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Cell biology and society A) Healthcare a. Drugs- Viagra, Vioxx (arthrictic), Ventolin (asthma) b. Personalized medicine- approach to treating dieases states based on one’s genetic make- up. It is critical that a cost effective way be developed so that a large part of the population is able to see their genetic code to figure out if they have any genetic predipostitions to a disorder or disease that could possibly be prevented earlier in life. b.i. Genetic tests- 1200 tests on the market, most have no scientific validity. BRCAI=for breast cancer, excellent drug, not regulated but FDA approved, bypass a physician. b.ii. Sequencing the genome- In 2000 Venter did it. Cost $100K. b.ii.1. NIH proposed “$1000 genome” using alpha-hemolysin bacterium or “barrel protein.” Increasing positive charge with alpha- hemolysin pore and varying its distribution. Increase the frequency of translocation of DNA 10-fold. The measured electric signals of each nucleotide would be recorded and genome can be sequenced. c. Bioterrorism-agents that are lethal d. Religious issues-embryonic stem cells e. Government- Agencies prevent you from having a baby if you have a genetic disorder. f. Stock market- Biotechnology g. Bioengineers h. Bioinformatics i. Immortality B) Bioterrorism a. Foxglove (plant from Europe, used in Medieval Times as poison) – extract is called digitalis, used to treat heart disease (Digitoxin) b. Botulinum Toxin (Botox)- 1 gram, kill 1 million people. FDA approved for facial dystonia, blocks the release of acetylchonline. Face lifts (off label).Stops muscle from contracting. c. RNAi (RNA interference)- blocks gene expression of selected genes. d. Clinical Trials – Macula degeneration d.i. Medical condition of older adults that causes them to lose the center field of vision or the macula. RNAi is being used to decrease VEGF secretion since the increase in blood vessels in the fovea due to mac deg. , increase the secretion of. Dry and wet mac degeneration. Wet is when there is overproduction of VEGF. VEGF. siRNA- fovea delicate, temporary. shRNA- permanent. e. Neurotoxins e.i. TTX-tetrodotoxin, blocks sodium entry, blocks action potential. f. Other drugs f.i. Ricin- isolated from castor bean, protein, 1 molecule can kill one cell. Blocks the ribosomes, converted to lethal compound right after leaving Golgi. f.ii. Anthrax- Bacillicus anthacis, Robert Kock 1879. f.ii.1. Releases spores with genome, can be active for 250 million years, UV light resistant. C) Stem cells (1998 James Thomson) and Regenerative Medicine a. Def: Totipotent- unlimited differentiation potential, living tissue. b. Def: Pluripotent- limited differentiation potential. ALSO iPS, induced pluripotent stem cells. c.
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This note was uploaded on 10/23/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 311 taught by Professor Brunsvick during the Spring '10 term at Binghamton University.

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Bio 311-Outline 1 - Test 1 Outline Cell biology and society...

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