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ReadingAssign090911 - CH02CH19-Yarmush ARI 12 May 2011...

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Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine: History, Progress, and Challenges Franc ¸ois Berthiaume, 1 Timothy J. Maguire, 1 and Martin L. Yarmush 1 , 2 1 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854; email: [email protected] 2 Center for Engineering in Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 Annu. Rev. Chem. Biomol. Eng. 2011. 2:403–30 First published online as a Review in Advance on March 17, 2011 The Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering is online atchembioeng.annualreviews.org This article’s doi: 10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-061010-114257 Copyright c 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved 1947-5438/11/0715-0403$20.00 Keywords artificial organs, skin, cartilage, liver, stem cells Abstract The past three decades have seen the emergence of an endeavor called tis- sue engineering and regenerative medicine in which scientists, engineers, and physicians apply tools from a variety of fields to construct biological substitutes that can mimic tissues for diagnostic and research purposes and can replace (or help regenerate) diseased and injured tissues. A significant portion of this effort has been translated to actual therapies, especially in the areas of skin replacement and, to a lesser extent, cartilage repair. A good amount of thoughtful work has also yielded prototypes of other tissue sub- stitutes such as nerve conduits, blood vessels, liver, and even heart. Forward movement to clinical product, however, has been slow. Another offshoot of these efforts has been the incorporation of some new exciting technologies (e.g., microfabrication, 3D printing) that may enable future breakthroughs. In this review we highlight the modest beginnings of the field and then de- scribe three application examples that are in various stages of development, ranging from relatively mature (skin) to ongoing proof-of-concept (carti- lage) to early stage (liver). We then discuss some of the major issues that limit the development of complex tissues, some of which are fundamentals- based, whereas others stem from the needs of the end users. 403 Annu. Rev. Chem. Biomol. Eng. 2011.2:403-430. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by Rutgers University Libraries on 09/06/11. For personal use only.
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A BRIEF HISTORY OF TISSUE ENGINEERING Tissue engineering is a relatively new field that uses living cells, biocompatible materials, and suitable biochemical (e.g., growth factors) and physical (e.g., cyclic mechanical loading) factors, as well as combinations thereof, to create tissue-like structures. Most frequently, the ultimate goal is implantation of these tissue constructs into the body to repair an injury or replace the function of a failing organ. The critical functions may be structural (e.g., bone, cartilage), barrier- and transport-related (e.g., skin, blood vessels), or biochemical and secretory (e.g., liver and pancreas).
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