Lecture 9

Lecture 9 - TOXICOLOGY Gary P. Carlson, Ph.D. Professor of...

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Unformatted text preview: TOXICOLOGY Gary P. Carlson, Ph.D. Professor of Toxicology gcarlson@purdue.edu Key words Toxicology Poison Toxic Exposure Types of poisonings Carcinogen Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Risk assessment A r s e n i c Spacecraft Maximal Allowable Concentration (SMAC) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) Toxicology From the Greek Toxikon pharmakon Bow drug or arrow poison Therefore, the basic science of poisons. So what is a poison? Theophrastus Bombastus Von Hohenheim (Paracelsus) 1538 What is it that is not a poison? All things are poisons and none without poison. Only the dose determines that a thing is a poison. Toxicology The study of the injurious effects of chemicals and physical agents. What are they? Why do they occur? Types of toxicology Economic Clinical F o r e n s i c Ecotoxicology Environmental Toxic Exposures Accidental Incidental Intentional Types of poisonings Acute rapid, single exposure Subchronic repeated days to weeks Chronic daily, years to lifetime Types of poisoning Any chemical may cause all three types of poisoning. Toxic effects due to the same chemical may differ among the three types of poisoning. What do toxicologists worry about? EVERYTHING A i r Water F o o d Occupational exposures Environmental exposures Drugs Carcinogens What are the leading cancer killers? Carcinogens Can we identify the causes? IARC Known - 87 A f l a t o x i n s A r s e n i c A s b e s t o s Benzene Benzidine Beryllium C a d m i u m Chromium Diethylstilbesterol Estrogens Formaldehyde Hepatitis B virus R a d i u m Silica Vinyl chloride X & gamma radiation What do we know? It is estimated that about one-third of cancers are associated with diet. There are some chemicals in the diet associated with cancer. There are also naturally occurring anti- cancer agents in food. Other Possible Carcinogens Are there differences in the risk of cancer from man-made synthetic chemicals versus naturally occurring chemicals? So where do these chemicals come from that are found in our foods? Food preparation Cooking especially charcoal broiling Pyrolysis products formed from amino acids polycyclic heterocyclic amines- mutagenic- carcinogenic liver, urinary bladder and mammary tumors in rats Food Carcinogens...
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Lecture 9 - TOXICOLOGY Gary P. Carlson, Ph.D. Professor of...

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