Lecture 9

Lecture 9 - TOXICOLOGY Gary P Carlson Ph.D Professor of...

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Unformatted text preview: TOXICOLOGY Gary P. Carlson, Ph.D. Professor of Toxicology [email protected] Key words • Toxicology • Poison • Toxic Exposure • Types of poisonings • Carcinogen • Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) • Risk assessment • A r s e n i c • Spacecraft Maximal Allowable Concentration (SMAC) • Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) Toxicology From the Greek – “Toxikon pharmakon” Bow drug or arrow poison Therefore, the basic science of poisons. So what is a poison? Theophrastus Bombastus Von Hohenheim (Paracelsus) 1538 “What is it that is not a poison? All things are poisons and none without poison. Only the dose determines that a thing is a poison.” Toxicology • The study of the injurious effects of chemicals and physical agents. • What are they? • Why do they occur? Types of toxicology • Economic • Clinical • F o r e n s i c • Ecotoxicology • Environmental Toxic Exposures • Accidental • Incidental • Intentional Types of poisonings • Acute – rapid, single exposure • Subchronic – repeated – days to weeks • Chronic – daily, years to lifetime Types of poisoning • Any chemical may cause all three types of poisoning. • Toxic effects due to the same chemical may differ among the three types of poisoning. What do toxicologists worry about? EVERYTHING • A i r • Water • F o o d • Occupational exposures • Environmental exposures • Drugs Carcinogens What are the leading cancer killers? Carcinogens Can we identify the causes? IARC – Known - 87 • A f l a t o x i n s • A r s e n i c • A s b e s t o s • Benzene • Benzidine • Beryllium • C a d m i u m • Chromium • Diethylstilbesterol • Estrogens • Formaldehyde • Hepatitis B virus • R a d i u m • Silica • Vinyl chloride • X & gamma radiation What do we know? • It is estimated that about one-third of cancers are associated with diet. • There are some chemicals in the diet associated with cancer. • There are also naturally occurring anti- cancer agents in food. Other Possible Carcinogens Are there differences in the risk of cancer from man-made synthetic chemicals versus naturally occurring chemicals? So where do these chemicals come from that are found in our foods? Food preparation Cooking – especially charcoal broiling Pyrolysis products formed from amino acids – polycyclic heterocyclic amines- mutagenic- carcinogenic – liver, urinary bladder and mammary tumors in rats Food Carcinogens...
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This note was uploaded on 10/24/2011 for the course HSCI 101 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Purdue.

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Lecture 9 - TOXICOLOGY Gary P Carlson Ph.D Professor of...

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