Lecture 11

Lecture 11 - “Introduction “Introduction to Ergonomics...

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Unformatted text preview: “Introduction “Introduction to Ergonomics HSCI 101 Introduction to Careers Introduction to Careers in in Health Sciences James D. McGlothlin, Ph.D., C.P.E. McGlothlin Ph Associate Professor of Ergonomics School of Health Sciences Purdue University Keywords Keywords Ergonomics Ergonomics Cumulative Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTDs) 7 work risk factors associated with CTDs CTD Carpal Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Office Office Ergonomics Overexertion Back Injuries Overexertion Manual Manual Materials Handling Presentation Presentation Outline Introduction Introduction Ergonomics Ergonomics Defined Why Why is Ergonomics Important Two common ergonomics-related disorders Two onomicsLow Low Back Injury Carpal Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Industrial Ergonomics Industrial Ergonomics Characteristics Characteristics of the Industrial Environment Manual Manual material handling and back injury Office Ergonomics Office Ergonomics Characteristics Characteristics of the office Environment The The computerized office and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome The Home Environment The Home Environment Characteristics Characteristics of the Home Environment Solutions Solutions towards making a more user friendly Home Adaptive products for seniors and how they can be Adaptive products for seniors and how they can be implemented implemented to make a safer home environment Disability Disability Ergonomics – a case study Ergonomics Defined Ergonomics Defined A branch of science that branch focuses on the achievement of optimal relationship between workers and their work environment Root Root Origin: Greek Ergo = Work Ergo Work Nomos Nomos = Laws of Ergonomics Ergonomics = Laws of Work Main Main Objective of Ergonomics Ergonomics Ergonomics Human Machine Work Environment Environment The Work Environment The Work Environment The ergonomically sound work environment is one in The ergonomically sound work environment is one in which which productivity is not at the expense of health By implementing the components of an ergonomically sound work environment an employer will most likely enhance the productivity and the worker’s quality of life This This is done by fitting the task to the person and not the person to the task The The Musculoskeletal System and Work Work Related Injuries Disease Categories Rank Disease Ordered Based on Limitation of Activity 1. Musculoskeletal System System 2. Circulatory System 3. Nervous System 4. 4. Respiratory System 5. Mental Disorders 6. Digestive System System Since Since the musculoskeletal system is the number one body system that limit limits activity, we are going to focus our attention on the physical hazards assessed at the workplace Low Low Back Injuries Injuries for low Estimated Estimated total costs back back pain is approximately 16 billion annually in the U.S. The prevalence of back The prevalence of back injuries injuries is highest in the lower back (L5-S1) (L5L5 S1 is the most common L5-S1 is the most common site site of back injury, because of higher compressive forces and increased torque and increased torque L5-S1 Structure and Function of the Lumbar Spine Disk Disk Movement Cervical Low Load Low Load Thoracic Lumbar High Load Sacral Manual Material Handling Risk Factors Key risk factors for back injury: Lifting, lowering, twisting, pushing, pulling, carrying Key variables for calculating risk for back injury: •Weight of load (should not Exceed 51 lbs) •Horizontal location of load •Vertical location of load •Destination of load •Frequency of lifting load of lifting load •Twisting while lifting load •Load having handles Control Control and Prevention of Low Back Back Pain How can we control and prevent low back pain? How can we control and prevent low back pain? The The evaluation and identification of risk factors Redesi Redesign of jobs can lead to the reduction of these risk factors and good job design initially will prevent back injuries Education Education and training of workers and management Ad Administrative Controls Work Work enrichment, enlargement, or rotation to reduce cumulative exposure Good Good Work Practices Prevention of Back Injury Prevention of Back Injury Along with the evaluation of risk factors, redesign of jobs, education, and interim changes a simple exercise/stretching routine can be implemented to help alleviate and prevent injuries of the back ll pr th Why Why implement a simple exercise/stretching routine Increases circulation Increases circulation Increases Increases flexibility Increases Increases job satisfaction Increases Increases productivity Trunk Extension Trunk Extension Anterior Pelvic Tilt Pelvic Tilt Sitting, arch back Hold 10 counts Repeat 2 times Backbends Stand with hands on hips Lean backward Keep knees straight i ht Hold 10 counts Repeat 2 times Trunk Trunk Flexion and Scapular Adduction Adduction Stand against wall with arms overhead. Reach for ceiling. Hold 10 counts Repeat 2 times Pinch shoulder blades together. Do not shrug shoulders Hold 10 counts. Repeat 2 times. Common Common Work Risk Factors (upper (upper limbs) Common Common Risk Factors (Static versus Dynamic Loads) Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Carpal Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common problem associated with repetitive movements of the hands and wrists which is the hands and wrists, which is often often associated with the office environment The carpal tunnel is channel The carpal tunnel is a channel on on the palmer side of the wrist formed by the irregular small bones of the wrist and a tough ligament ligament stretched across it. Through the carpal tunnel pass the flexor tendons of the fingers the median nerve and fingers, the median nerve, and some some blood vessels. What risk factors are associated with What risk factors are associated with Carpal Carpal Tunnel Syndrome? One One occupational risk factor is the increase in the usage of computer workstations has come the increase in incidence of cases of carpal tunnel syndrome The The computer operator must maintain static postures (flexion in the wrists) over prolonged periods of time periods of time Static Static effort is a prolonged state of muscle contraction. Muscles remain in a state of heightened heightened tension; blood does not flow through the muscle, and no useful work is visible. Office Ergonomics Office Ergonomics WorkWork-related injuries are not limited to manual handling operators Office employees also face Office employees also face ergonomic ergonomic challenges to maintaining optimal health Prolonged sitting can place Prolonged sitting can place excessive excessive strain on the lower back for individuals who work in the office work in the office environment environment Prolonged sitting sitting Repetitive Movements Awkward Postures VDT Workstations VDT Workstations Work risk factors pointed out by Grandjean Work risk factors pointed out by Grandjean (1988) (1988) Working with VDT for several hours (or perhaps Working with a VDT for several hours (or perhaps all all day) without interruption Restricted movements Restricted movements Concentrated Concentrated attention on the screen Hands linked to the keyboard and computer mouse Hands linked to the keyboard and computer mouse Posture Posture at the Computer Workstation Workstation Employees at a computer workstation should practice Em the following: Sitting Sitting straight, facing the keyboard and computer monitor with th with the back straight to avoid straining the muscles and the ith th th intervertebral disks of the neck and back. Holding Holding the head slightly downward to avoid straining the neck neck and shoulders. Maintaining Maintaining the hand and wrist straight and in line with the forearm to avoid irritation of the tendons and their sheaths in the the carpal tunnel Adjusting Workstations Adjusting Workstations The following simple adjustments to the workstations The following simple adjustments to the workstations reduce reduce the odds of encountering many ergonomicsergonomicsrelated problems The The seat and backrest should be adjusted so that the user can maintain straight hands and wrists. If If possible, the desk height should be adjusted to allow the VDT user to maintain a correct posture, in which the torso is upright, the upper arms an the lower legs vertical, the forearms forearms and thighs horizontal to the adjusted seat height. Adjusting Adjusting Workstations Continued Continued The keyboard height should be adjusted so that the The user’s wrists are straight during keyboarding. The The keyboard should be positioned so that the user is facing the keyboard while keeping the wrists straight and the elbows as close to the body as possible. possible. The The top of the display should be at approximately eye height for use by operators with normal visual acuity. acuity. Some Some Benefits of Ergonomic Applications Applications at Work Understand the type of work on workers’ bodies and job Understand yp performance Predicting longPredicting long-term effects of work on workers’ bodies Assessment of “fitness” of workplace and/or tools to workers “fit in job performance Improvement of productivity and well-being of workers by Im well-bein fitting the task to the person, not fitting the person to the task Establishment Establishment of a knowledge base support for designers, engineers and medical personnel for improving the engineers, and medical personnel for improving the productivity productivity and well-being of individuals well- A User Friendly Home User Friendly Home The Ergonomic Home A space to relax, play and space work in peace A place where everything works almost intuitively An An ergonomic home will be beneficial to those around around you and of course yourself Many Many products are available to help make living easier and safer Adjustable height furniture is becoming more common at home. Kitchen Layout – Old and New New kitchen layout with stove Island - efficient Traditional Kitchen Layouts: inefficient Bedroom Ergonomics Aids Bathroom Bathroom Ergonomic Aids Bathroom Ergonomic Aids Bathroom Bathroom Bathroom Ergonomics Aids Slip resistant Bathmat Bathroom Ergonomic Aids Bathroom Electronics Electronics End End of talk on Ergonomics Ergonomics at Work and Home. Disability Ergonomics Disabilit A Case Study on Ergonomics and how Scott got his super scooter cam. Keywords Keywords Disability Ergonomics Disabilit Christopher Christopher Reeve –aka- Superman akaSpinal Spinal Cord Disability Scooter Scooter Cam Accessibility Accessibility for people with disabilities American’s with Disabilities Act (ADA) This book by This book by Christopher Reeve is the inspiration is the inspiration for the title of our talk. lk Also, the Christopher Reeve Paralysis Foundation (CRPF), provided a grant to the School of Health Sciences to help improve the quality of life the quality of life for Purdue students who are physically challenged due to spinal cord injuries. Our Super Scooter Project Our Super Scooter Project School School of Health Sciences Project Title: Using Sensing Technology to Improve the Using Sensing Technology to Improve the Quality Quality of Life for College Students with Spinal Cord Injuries and Diseases Spinal Cord Injuries and Diseases Purpose of Project: The purpose of this research is to improve the quality of life of physically disabled students. Procedures: A real-time video monitoring system will be designed, developed, and mounted on an electric scooter and used by a student who has suffered from a spinal cord injury. The camera will record events as seen by the student while navigating around campus. The real-time video monitoring system will be nonobtrusive so as not to distract the driver of the scooter and not bring unnecessary attention to it by other students. The The goals of this study are to make it easier for physically it challenged students to navigate comfortably and safely around campus and safely around campus and possibly possibly integrate more easily with with the general student body by removing physical, by removing physical, environmental, environmental, seasonal, and social barriers. Meet Scott. Scott started at started at Purdue University 7 years ago. He started in Engineering, then transferred to Pharmacy, then to Health Sciences. Health Sciences. He is now finishing his degree in the School of Technology (Organizational Leadership & Supervision). Front Front view of Scott’s Camera Recording System Camera Back Back view of Scott’s camera system Diode to tell Scott camera is on On/off privacy switch to turn off camera Clock with Sweep hand hand To record elapsed time Brackets to mount on scooter The The camera to record Scott’s events The The “Brains.” Circuitry engineered at Purdue to turn camera into a video recording system. Video input was through the Lanc connector on the camera. Circuitry used to connect the outside camera to the video camera in the basket. Sony Sony camera used to record events. events. Note Lanc connector. Note wires coming out of basket passing down the steering column through the rubber boot and to the wheel hub When the scooter boot and to the wheel hub. When the scooter moved a magnet connected to the wheel hub tripped a magnetic switch to turn the Camera on. This saved videotape and on. This saved videotape and batteries and gave us only the information we wanted (i.e., Scott on the move). Safety Safety and Ergonomic Issues for for Scott and his Super Scooter Scott and I went to the Grand Prix last Spring. This is the first time Scott went to this event since attending Purdue. We had a great time. Scott Scott beginning to cross at Northwestern & Stadium Stadium Scott Scott crossing Northwestern & Stadium Avenue. Avenue. The cross light is on 10 seconds long. ReRe-engineered Intersection (completed 8-10-04) 8-10- ReRe-engineered Intersection (completed 8-13-04) 8-13- Stadium Stadium Crossing (note large island) island) Stadium Stadium Ave. Looking East to Northwestern Northwestern Ave. Video Video clip of Scott and his super scooter (outdoors) (outdoors) What What the Freshman Scholars found Steep Steep incline for Scott’s scooter. Little to no traction when wet, snow covered or covered with ice when wet snow covered or covered with ice The “offThe “off-ramp” for Scott is dangerously close to traffic The The entrance for Scott has to use to get get to class is not large enough for hi his scooter to get through. Someone has to unlock the has to unlock the side side door to make it wide enough to pass through. Scott Scott must be let Scott in to use a 3rd elevator. Scott Scott must use this freight elevator to get to the next floor. This elevator only moves about ½ floor to the next level. The The gate swing closes before Scott is fully positioned in the elevator. It It is difficult for Scott to reach the elevator buttons from the seated position in his scooter scooter The The handles and faucet for students with physical challenges to their hands far right so Scott can reach paper dispenser. Another option would would be to install another paper dispenser next to this faucet. Large Large distance from sink for towel dispenser to trash can. di Meal Meal time – Social Activities Lacking Good Ergonomics is Good Good Ergonomics is Good Economics Economics because: Boosts Boosts productivity Reduces injury r Improves Improves the quality of life at work and home by reducing stress (i.e., physical, mental, psychological) This concludes the lecture on Ergonomics ...
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