05-Cell receptornotes

05-Cell receptornotes - Cell receptors Cell communication o...

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Cell receptors Cell communication Cells must interact with their environment Cells in multicellular organisms must coordinate activities o Act as a single unit: a tissue or an organ Communication between cells requires: o Ligand: the signaling molecule o Receptor protein: the molecule to which the receptor binds Ligand-receptor binding conveys information o Causes a response through signal transduction (relaying) Figure 9.1 Four mechanisms There are four basic mechanisms for cellular communication: o (1) Direct contact o (2) Paracrine signaling o (3) Endocrine signaling o (4) Synaptic signaling Direct contact Direct contact molecules on the surface of one cell are recognized by receptors on the adjacent cell Figure 9.2 Paracrine signaling Paracrine signaling signal released from a cell has an effect on neighboring cells Figure 9.2 Endocrine signaling Endocrine signaling hormones released from a cell affect other cells throughout the body Figure 9.2
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Synaptic signaling Synaptic signaling nerve cells release the signal (neurotransmitter) which binds to receptors on nearby cells Figure 9.2 Signal transduction When a ligand binds to a receptor protein, the cell responds
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