00ECE108Ch1intro

00ECE108Ch1intro - The First Computers Mechanical-Vacuum...

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Unformatted text preview: The First Computers Mechanical-Vacuum Tube ENIAC - The first electronic computer (1946) The Babbage Difference Engine (1832) 25,000 parts cost: £17,470 Introduction Introduction The First Transistor First transistor Bell Labs, 1948 Introduction Introduction The First Integrated Circuits Bipolar logic 1960’s ECL 3-input Gate Motorola 1966 Introduction Introduction Moore’s Law lIn 1965, Gordon Moore noted that the number of transistors on a chip doubled every 18 to 24 months. lHe made a prediction that semiconductor technology will double its effectiveness every 18 months Introduction Introduction Electronics, April 19, 1965. Introduction Introduction 1975 1974 1973 1972 1971 1970 1969 1968 1967 1966 1965 1964 1963 1962 1961 1960 1959 LOG2 OF THE NUMBER OF COMPONENTS PER INTEGRATED FUNCTION Moore’s Law 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Intel 4004 Micro-Processor 1971 1000 transistors 1 MHz operation Introduction Introduction Intel Pentium (IV) microprocessor Introduction Introduction Transistor Counts K 1,000,000 100,000 0.781B Transistors 1,000 i386 80286 100 1 1975 Pentium® IV Pentium® III Pentium® II Pentium® Pro Pentium® 2X growth in 1.96 years! 10,000 10 Core i7 i486 8086 Source: Intel 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Projected Courtesy, Intel Introduction Introduction Cost per Transistor cost: ¢-per-transistor per- 1 0.1 Fabrication capital cost per transistor (Moore’s law) 0.01 0.001 0.0001 0.00001 0.000001 0.0000001 1982 1985 1988 1991 1994 Introduction Introduction 1997 2000 2003 2006 2009 2012 Evolution in on chip memory Introduction Introduction Die Size Growth Die size (mm) 100 10 8080 8008 4004 8086 8085 286 386 486 Pentium ® proc Core i7 (16.5mm) Core i2 ~7% growth per year ~2X growth in 10 years 1 1970 1980 1990 Year 2000 2010 Die size grew by 14% to satisfy Moore’s Law Courtesy, Intel Introduction Introduction Wafer /Die Single die Wafer Going up to 12” (30cm) From http://www.amd.com Introduction Introduction Defects defects per unit area × die area die yield = 1 + α α is approximately 3 die cost = f (die area) 4 Introduction Introduction −α Frequency Frequency (Mhz) 10000 1000 P4 100 10 Core i7 (3.3GHz) Doubles every 2 years 8085 1 0.1 1970 8086 286 386 486 P6 Pentium ® proc 8080 8008 4004 1980 1990 Year 2000 2010 Lead Microprocessors frequency used to double every 2 years Courtesy, Intel Introduction Introduction Power Dissipation Power (Watts) 100 P6 Pentium ® proc 10 8086 286 1 4004 8008 486 386 8085 8080 0.1 1971 1974 1978 1985 1992 2000 Year Lead Microprocessors power continues to increase Introduction Introduction Courtesy, Intel Power is a major problem 100000 18KW 5KW 1.5KW 500W Core i7 (130W) Pentium® proc Power (Watts) 10000 1000 100 286 486 8086 386 10 8085 8080 8008 1 4004 0.1 1971 1974 1978 1985 1992 Year 2000 2004 2008 Power delivery and dissipation will be prohibitive prohibitive To maintain Moore’s Law Introduction Introduction Courtesy, Intel Design Strategy Intel 4004 Processor Fully custom design Pentium processor Hierarchical design based on standard cells Introduction Introduction Core i7 Multi core design Design Metrics l How to evaluate performance of a digital circuit (gate, block, …)? » Cost » Reliability » Scalability » Speed (delay, operating frequency) » Power dissipation » Energy to perform a function Introduction Introduction Cost of Integrated Circuits l NRE (non-recurrent engineering) costs » design time and effort, mask generation » one-time cost factor l Recurrent costs » silicon processing, packaging, test » proportional to volume » proportional to chip area Introduction Introduction NRE Cost is Increasing Introduction Introduction ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/24/2011 for the course ECE 108 taught by Professor Kennethy.yun during the Spring '08 term at UCSD.

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