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Reactions and their mechanisms PDF

Reactions and their mechanisms PDF - Reactions and their...

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11/10/2011 1 Reactions and their mechanisms L earning objectives: You should be able to: Classify chemical reactions as addition, elimination, substitution, rearrangement……just four reaction types!!! Correctly use electron-movement arrow convention (nucleophile to electrophile) to show how substitution reactions of two types occur: S N 1 and S N 2. Describe the differences in S N 1 and S N 2 reactions (intermediates/transition states, kinetics, nucleophile and substrate required). Draw and recognize the reaction coordinate diagram for S N 1 and S N 2 reactions and describe what it represents. Identify when the arrow-pushing conventions of reaction mechanisms are being used correctly or incorrectly Book: Klein Chapters 6 and 7 Types of reactions Example of a substitution reaction Types of reactions Example of an addition reaction Addition to alkenes: One pi bond and one sigma bond into two sigma bonds Addition to a double bond very common, there are many reagents that will add to multiple bonds Types of reactions Example of an elimination reaction
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11/10/2011 2 Types of reactions Example of a rearrangement reaction Arrow “pushing” Very important tool!!! Drawing reaction mechanisms is an essential CHEM 233 skill. This requires a high degree of attention to detail, and reaction mechanisms are best mastered with lots of practice! Arrow “pushing” Chemists use arrows to indicate the direction of movement of electron pairs from a nucleophile to an electrophile Nucleophiles have lone pairs of electrons, and can be negatively charged or neutral Electrophiles can be positively charged or neutral
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