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CHAPTER 1 MANAGERS AND MANAGEMENT The concept of managers and management is explored in this chapter. Every organization, regardless of size, type, or location needs managers. The characteristics of managers vary. Managers may come from any nationality or be of either gender. They're just as likely to be women, particularly in middle management and supervisory management positions, as they are men. For instance, the manager described in the chapter opening Manager's Dilemma, Cynthia Glenn,chief operating officer of Oxford Health Care, is a good example of a successful manager in action. She's involved with a major change that will radically transform her organization. As the COO, she epitomizes the planning, organizing, leading, and controlling activities that must be performed in order for the company to meet its goals. This chapter describes the work that Glenn and other managers at all levels and in all functional areas of an organization perform. 1. INTRODUCTION. The concept of management and managers is introduced in this chapter. Four questions are addressed: A. Who are managers? B. What is management? C. What do managers do? D. Why should we study management? 2. WHO ARE MANAGERS? A. Managers work in organizations and direct the activities of others. They differ from operatives who have no responsibility for overseeing the work of others. First-line managers are often referred to as supervisors and comprise the lowest level of management. B. Since managers work in organizations, it's important to understand what an organization is. 1. An organization is defined as a systematic arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose. 2. Organizations share three common characteristics (see Figure 1.1 on p. 6).
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a. Has a distinct purpose. b. Is composed of people. c. Develops a systematic structure that defines and limits the behavior of organizational members. 3. WHAT IS MANAGEMENT AND WHAT DO MANAGERS DO? There are common characteristics to managers' jobs. We can begin to understand what these characteristics are by using different approaches to understanding what management is and what managers do. A. Defining Management. Management is the process of getting activities done efficiently with and through other people. 1. The process includes the functions or primary activities performed by managers. 2. Efficiency refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs and refers to efforts to minimize resource costs. 3. Effectiveness refers to goal attainment. 4. Managers seek to be both efficient and effective. B. Management Functions. Henri Fayol, a French industrialist from the early part of the 1900s, proposed that managers perform five management functions: POCCC (plan, organize, command, coordinate, control). These functions still provide the basis around which popular management textbooks are organized. However, the functions have been condensed to four.
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This note was uploaded on 10/24/2011 for the course MGT 112 taught by Professor C.guthrie during the Spring '09 term at Parkland.

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