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Unformatted text preview: electrons • Inductive effects: through σ-bonds • Resonance effects: through π-bonds 2 Substituted Benzenes (18.6) • Electron donating groups (EDGs) make the aromatic ring “electron rich” • Electron withdrawing groups (EWGs) make the aromatic ring “electron poor” • Inductive and resonance effects can reinforce or oppose one another! Free Energy Diagram for EAS EDG’s increase rate (activating) EWG’s decrease rate (deactivating)...
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- Spring '11
- Organic chemistry