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5/15/11 LATIN AMERICA AGRICULTURE • Plantation Agriculture- type of commercial agriculture in less developed countries • Luxury crops- coffee • System is labor intensive, export oriented Intensive Subsistence Agriculture- sedentary smallholder agriculture • In densely populated areas of east, southeast, and south Asia, Latin America, and Africa • Small holdings- small farmers (1-5 acres) • Labor intensive/animal power=important • Significant environmental modification • Fertilization, reclamation (reclaim land) • Terracing- slope management Polyculture- 2 or more crops in the same field at the same time Genetic of Inter-specific Diversity- growing more than one variety of the same crop Intimate Knowledge of Land • Not a system based on science and technology • Keen observers of the land • Centuries of experimentation Carl Sauer- “… appreciation of native economies…” Primary concerns • Survival • Stability New Adaptive Strategies in a Rapidly Changing World • Commercialization Modern/Commercial Agriculture • Green Revolution- 2nd agricultural revolution (1960s) • “Scientific Agriculture”-Green Revo Tech Package 1. Improved Seeds 2. Fertilizer 3. Pesticides 4. Irrigation 5. Mechanization • Hybridization- plant selection and cross breeding for desired traits • Transfer genes between varieties of the same species • International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center- Mexico • Global gain yields have tripled since 1950 • Large Wealthier Farmers Benefit the Most • Mechanization can cause land concentration, unemployment, and migration • Environmental damage and health hazards (pesticides) • Loss of genetic diversity (monoculture) Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO’s)- “the 3rd Agricultural Revolution” (late 90s) • Genetic engineering • Transfer of genes from different species • “transgenic organisms” • Genetic contamination and uncontrolled spread Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming- US Midwest, Central Europe, NE Argentina, SE Brazil Dairy Farming- US NE/Great Lakes, North Europe, SE Australia/New Zealand Chino=Milk Shed Grain Farming- US/Canada Great Plains, Central Europe/Ukraine/Russia, Argentine Pampa, Australia Commercial Livestock Ranching- marginal lands, “agricultural activity of last resort”
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Grazing on Western Public Lands- Livestock run on 270 million acres of public lands • 11 western states • 1/3 of states total land area Feedlots- “Factory Farming” “Meat Manufacturing” Fatten in feedlots (up to 100,000 or more), centralized GEOG 150::: 5/18/11 Mediterranean Agriculture: Areas of Mediterranean Climate Mediterranean crop trilogy:: WHEAT, OLIVES, GRAPES California Ag: San Joaquin Valley= most productive region in the world Total Ag Value- $34 bil Market or truck Gardening World’s First Cities were in the Middle East Fertile Crescent, Mesopotamia, Nile Valley (4,000-6,000 yrs ago) Ancient Ur in Iraq Damascus—amongst the longest continually inhabited urban places on earth
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